Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 2.4.6

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

आ यो वना॑ तातृषा॒णो न भाति॒ वार्ण प॒था रथ्ये॑व स्वानीत् । कृ॒ष्णाध्वा॒ तपू॑ र॒ण्वश्चि॑केत॒ द्यौरि॑व॒ स्मय॑मानो॒ नभो॑भिः ॥
आ यो वना तातृषाणो न भाति वार्ण पथा रथ्येव स्वानीत् । कृष्णाध्वा तपू रण्वश्चिकेत द्यौरिव स्मयमानो नभोभिः ॥
ā yo vanā tātṛṣāṇo na bhāti vār ṇa pathā rathyeva svānīt | kṛṣṇādhvā tapū raṇvaś ciketa dyaur iva smayamāno nabhobhiḥ ||

English translation:

“Who shines amidst the forests, as if satisfying himself (with food); who (rushes along), like water down a declivity, and thunders like a chariot (of war); dark-pathed consuming, yet delightful, he is regarded like the sky smiling with constellations.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): somāhutirbhārgavaḥ [somāhutirbhārgava];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): agniḥ ;
Chandas (meter): ārṣīpaṅkti;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

आ । यः । वना॑ । त॒तृ॒षा॒णः । न । भाति॑ । वाः । न । प॒था । रथ्या॑ऽइव । स्वा॒नी॒त् । कृ॒ष्णऽअ॑ध्वा । तपुः॑ । र॒ण्वः । चि॒के॒त॒ । द्यौःऽइ॑व । स्मय॑मानः । नभः॑ऽभिः ॥
आ । यः । वना । ततृषाणः । न । भाति । वाः । न । पथा । रथ्याइव । स्वानीत् । कृष्णअध्वा । तपुः । रण्वः । चिकेत । द्यौःइव । स्मयमानः । नभःभिः ॥
ā | yaḥ | vanā | tatṛṣāṇaḥ | na | bhāti | vāḥ | na | pathā | rathyāiva | svānīt | kṛṣṇa-adhvā | tapuḥ | raṇvaḥ | ciketa | dyauḥ-iva | smayamānaḥ | nabhaḥ-bhiḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 2.4.6 English analysis of grammar]



“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”

yo < yaḥ < yad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

vanā < vana

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter

“forest; wood; tree; grove; vana [word]; forest; brush.”

tātṛṣāṇo < tātṛṣāṇaḥ < tṛṣ

[verb noun], nominative, singular




“not; like; no; na [word].”

bhāti < bhā

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“look; shine; show; look like; glitter; reflect.”


[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“water; juice; jala.”

ṇa < na


“not; like; no; na [word].”

pathā < pathin

[noun], instrumental, singular

“way; road; path [word]; journey; method.”

rathyeva < rathyā

[noun], nominative, singular, feminine

“road; way; highway.”

rathyeva < iva


“like; as it were; somehow; just so.”

svānīt < svan

[verb], singular, Aorist inj. (proh.)

“sound; sound.”

kṛṣṇādhvā < kṛṣṇa


“black; dark; dark; blue; black.”

kṛṣṇādhvā < adhvā < adhvan

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“way; journey; adhvan [word]; time; path; method; road; time; distance.”

tapū < tapuḥ < tapu

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

raṇvaś < raṇvaḥ < raṇva

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“agreeable; happy; delightful; gay.”

ciketa < cit

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“notice; observe; attend to; intend.”

dyaur < dyauḥ < div

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“sky; Svarga; day; div [word]; heaven and earth; day; dawn.”



“like; as it were; somehow; just so.”

smayamāno < smayamānaḥ < smi

[verb noun], nominative, singular


nabhobhiḥ < nabhas

[noun], instrumental, plural, neuter

“sky; cloud; ākāśa; air; abhra.”

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