Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 1.178.5

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

त्वया॑ व॒यं म॑घवन्निन्द्र॒ शत्रू॑न॒भि ष्या॑म मह॒तो मन्य॑मानान् । त्वं त्रा॒ता त्वमु॑ नो वृ॒धे भू॑र्वि॒द्यामे॒षं वृ॒जनं॑ जी॒रदा॑नुम् ॥
त्वया वयं मघवन्निन्द्र शत्रूनभि ष्याम महतो मन्यमानान् । त्वं त्राता त्वमु नो वृधे भूर्विद्यामेषं वृजनं जीरदानुम् ॥
tvayā vayam maghavann indra śatrūn abhi ṣyāma mahato manyamānān | tvaṃ trātā tvam u no vṛdhe bhūr vidyāmeṣaṃ vṛjanaṃ jīradānum ||

English translation:

“By you, opulent Indra, may we overcome our mighty and formidable enemies; you are our protector; may you be propitious to our prosperity, that we may thence obtain food, strength and long life.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): agastyo maitrāvaruṇiḥ [agastya maitrāvaruṇi];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): virāṭtrisṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

त्वया॑ । व॒यम् । म॒घ॒ऽव॒न् । इ॒न्द्र॒ । शत्रू॑न् । अ॒भि । स्या॒म॒ । म॒ह॒तः । मन्य॑मानान् । त्वम् । त्रा॒ता । त्वम् । ऊँ॒ इति॑ । नः॒ । वृ॒धे । भूः॒ । वि॒द्याम॑ । इ॒षम् । वृ॒जन॑म् । जी॒रऽदा॑नुम् ॥
त्वया । वयम् । मघवन् । इन्द्र । शत्रून् । अभि । स्याम । महतः । मन्यमानान् । त्वम् । त्राता । त्वम् । ऊँ इति । नः । वृधे । भूः । विद्याम । इषम् । वृजनम् । जीरदानुम् ॥
tvayā | vayam | magha-van | indra | śatrūn | abhi | syāma | mahataḥ | manyamānān | tvam | trātā | tvam | oṃ iti | naḥ | vṛdhe | bhūḥ | vidyāma | iṣam | vṛjanam | jīra-dānum

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 1.178.5 English analysis of grammar]

tvayā < tvad

[noun], instrumental, singular


vayam < mad

[noun], nominative, plural

“I; mine.”

maghavann < maghavan

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Indra; maghavan [word].”


[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

śatrūn < śatru

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“enemy; foe; enemy; Asura.”



“towards; on.”

ṣyāma < syāma < as

[verb], plural, Present optative

“be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”

mahato < mahataḥ < mahat

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“large; eminent; great; loud; dangerous; strong; long; high; much(a); mahant [word]; ample; very; great; adult; important; dark; high; abundant; violent; remarkable; mighty; big; long.”

manyamānān < man

[verb noun], accusative, plural

“think of; name; believe; teach; honor; deem; recommend; approve; think; define; call; respect; believe; enumerate; understand; see; describe.”

tvaṃ < tvam < tvad

[noun], nominative, singular


trātā < trā

[verb], singular, periphrast. future

“protect; help.”

tvam < tvad

[noun], nominative, singular




“ukāra; besides; now; indeed; u.”

no < naḥ < mad

[noun], dative, plural

“I; mine.”

vṛdhe < vṛdh

[verb noun]

“increase; grow; vṛdh; increase; succeed; strengthen; grow up; spread.”

bhūr < bhūḥ < bhū

[verb], singular, Aorist inj. (proh.)

“become; be; originate; transform; happen; result; exist; be born; be; be; come to life; grow; elapse; come to mind; thrive; become; impend; show; conceive; understand; stand; constitute; serve; apply; behave.”

vidyāmeṣaṃ < vidyāma < vid

[verb], plural, Present optative

“know; diagnose; perceive; know; accord; notice; deem; mind; learn; specify; watch; recognize; detect; call.”

vidyāmeṣaṃ < iṣam < iṣa

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

vṛjanaṃ < vṛjanam < vṛjana

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“community; settlement.”

jīradānum < jīra


“agile; quick; fast.”

jīradānum < dānum < dānu

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“Dānu; dew; drop.”

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