Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 1.178.4

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ए॒वा नृभि॒रिन्द्र॑: सुश्रव॒स्या प्र॑खा॒दः पृ॒क्षो अ॒भि मि॒त्रिणो॑ भूत् । स॒म॒र्य इ॒षः स्त॑वते॒ विवा॑चि सत्राक॒रो यज॑मानस्य॒ शंस॑: ॥
एवा नृभिरिन्द्रः सुश्रवस्या प्रखादः पृक्षो अभि मित्रिणो भूत् । समर्य इषः स्तवते विवाचि सत्राकरो यजमानस्य शंसः ॥
evā nṛbhir indraḥ suśravasyā prakhādaḥ pṛkṣo abhi mitriṇo bhūt | samarya iṣaḥ stavate vivāci satrākaro yajamānasya śaṃsaḥ ||

English translation:

“Verily, Indra through desire of (sacrificial) food, is the devourer (of that which is presented) by (his) worshippers, and overcomes (the adversaries) of his friend; in the many-voiced assembly (of men), Indra, the faithful (performer of his promise), commending (the piety) of his worshipper, approves of the (offered) food.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): agastyo maitrāvaruṇiḥ [agastya maitrāvaruṇi];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ए॒व । नृऽभिः॑ । इन्द्रः॑ । सु॒ऽश्र॒व॒स्या । प्र॒ऽखा॒दः । पृ॒क्षः । अ॒भि । मि॒त्रिणः॑ । भू॒त् । स॒ऽम॒र्ये । इ॒षः । स्त॒व॒ते॒ । विऽवा॑चि । स॒त्रा॒ऽक॒रः । यज॑मानस्य । शंसः॑ ॥
एव । नृभिः । इन्द्रः । सुश्रवस्या । प्रखादः । पृक्षः । अभि । मित्रिणः । भूत् । समर्ये । इषः । स्तवते । विवाचि । सत्राकरः । यजमानस्य । शंसः ॥
eva | nṛ-bhiḥ | indraḥ | su-śravasyā | pra-khādaḥ | pṛkṣaḥ | abhi | mitriṇaḥ | bhūt | sa-marye | iṣaḥ | stavate | vi-vāci | satrākaraḥ | yajamānasya | śaṃsaḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 1.178.4 English analysis of grammar]

evā < eva


“indeed; merely; thus; even; surely; same; eva [word]; successively; immediately; in truth.”

nṛbhir < nṛbhiḥ < nṛ

[noun], instrumental, plural, masculine

“man; man; nṛ [word]; crew; masculine.”

indraḥ < indra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

suśravasyā < su


“very; well; good; nicely; beautiful; su; early; quite.”

suśravasyā < śravasyā

[noun], instrumental, singular, feminine

prakhādaḥ < prakhāda

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

pṛkṣo < pṛkṣaḥ < pṛkṣa

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“strong; full of life.”



“towards; on.”

mitriṇo < mitriṇaḥ < mitrin

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine


bhūt < bhū

[verb], singular, Aorist inj. (proh.)

“become; be; originate; transform; happen; result; exist; be born; be; be; come to life; grow; elapse; come to mind; thrive; become; impend; show; conceive; understand; stand; constitute; serve; apply; behave.”

samarya < samarye < samarya

[noun], locative, singular, neuter

iṣa < iṣaḥ < iṣ

[noun], genitive, singular, feminine

“refreshment; enjoyment; stores.”

stavate < stu

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“laud; praise; declare; stu.”

vivāci < vivāc

[noun], locative, singular, feminine


satrākaro < satrākaraḥ < satrākara

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

yajamānasya < yaj

[verb noun], genitive, singular

“sacrifice; worship; worship.”

śaṃsaḥ < śaṃsa

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“praise; śaṃs; recitation.”

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