Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 1.178.3

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

जेता॒ नृभि॒रिन्द्र॑: पृ॒त्सु शूर॒: श्रोता॒ हवं॒ नाध॑मानस्य का॒रोः । प्रभ॑र्ता॒ रथं॑ दा॒शुष॑ उपा॒क उद्य॑न्ता॒ गिरो॒ यदि॑ च॒ त्मना॒ भूत् ॥
जेता नृभिरिन्द्रः पृत्सु शूरः श्रोता हवं नाधमानस्य कारोः । प्रभर्ता रथं दाशुष उपाक उद्यन्ता गिरो यदि च त्मना भूत् ॥
jetā nṛbhir indraḥ pṛtsu śūraḥ śrotā havaṃ nādhamānasya kāroḥ | prabhartā rathaṃ dāśuṣa upāka udyantā giro yadi ca tmanā bhūt ||

English translation:

Indra, the hero, the victor in battles, along with the leaders (of his hosts, the Maruts), will hear the invocation of his supplicating worshipper, and when disposed to accept his praises, will, of his own accord, drive his chariot close to the donor (of the oblation).”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): agastyo maitrāvaruṇiḥ [agastya maitrāvaruṇi];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

जेता॑ । नृऽभिः॑ । इन्द्रः॑ । पृ॒त्ऽसु । शूरः॑ । श्रोता॑ । हव॑म् । नाध॑मानस्य । का॒रोः । प्रऽभ॑र्ता । रथ॑म् । दा॒शुषः॑ । उ॒पा॒के । उत्ऽय॑न्ता । गिरः॑ । यदि॑ । च॒ । त्मना॑ । भूत् ॥
जेता । नृभिः । इन्द्रः । पृत्सु । शूरः । श्रोता । हवम् । नाधमानस्य । कारोः । प्रभर्ता । रथम् । दाशुषः । उपाके । उत्यन्ता । गिरः । यदि । च । त्मना । भूत् ॥
jetā | nṛ-bhiḥ | indraḥ | pṛt-su | śūraḥ | śrotā | havam | nādhamānasya | kāroḥ | pra-bhartā | ratham | dāśuṣaḥ | upāke | ut-yantā | giraḥ | yadi | ca | tmanā | bhūt

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 1.178.3 English analysis of grammar]

jetā < ji

[verb], singular, periphrast. future

“overcome; cure; win; conquer; control; win; succeed; remove; beat; govern; surpass; suppress.”

nṛbhir < nṛbhiḥ < nṛ

[noun], instrumental, plural, masculine

“man; man; nṛ [word]; crew; masculine.”

indraḥ < indra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

pṛtsu < pṛt

[noun], locative, plural, feminine


śūraḥ < śūra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“hero; cock; śūra; Śūra; Vatica robusta; Plumbago zeylanica; warrior; hero; attacker; lentil; wild boar; lion; dog.”

śrotā < śru

[verb], singular, periphrast. future

“listen; come to know; hear; hear; listen; study; heed; learn.”

havaṃ < havam < hava

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine


nādhamānasya < nādh

[verb noun], genitive, singular


kāroḥ < kāru

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“poet; singer.”

prabhartā < prabhṛ < √bhṛ

[verb], singular, periphrast. future

rathaṃ < ratham < ratha

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“chariot; warrior; ratha [word]; Dalbergia oojeinensis; rattan.”

dāśuṣa < dāśuṣaḥ < dāś

[verb noun], genitive, singular

“sacrifice; give.”

upāka < upākaḥ < upāka

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

udyantā < udyam < √yam

[verb], singular, periphrast. future

“raise; prepare; begin; endeavor; specialize.”

giro < giraḥ < gir

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“hymn; praise; voice; words; invocation; command; statement; cry; language.”



“if; in case.”



“and; besides; then; now; even.”

tmanā < tman

[noun], instrumental, singular, masculine


bhūt < bhū

[verb], singular, Aorist inj. (proh.)

“become; be; originate; transform; happen; result; exist; be born; be; be; come to life; grow; elapse; come to mind; thrive; become; impend; show; conceive; understand; stand; constitute; serve; apply; behave.”

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