Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 1.164.26

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

उप॑ ह्वये सु॒दुघां॑ धे॒नुमे॒तां सु॒हस्तो॑ गो॒धुगु॒त दो॑हदेनाम् । श्रेष्ठं॑ स॒वं स॑वि॒ता सा॑विषन्नो॒ऽभी॑द्धो घ॒र्मस्तदु॒ षु प्र वो॑चम् ॥
उप ह्वये सुदुघां धेनुमेतां सुहस्तो गोधुगुत दोहदेनाम् । श्रेष्ठं सवं सविता साविषन्नोऽभीद्धो घर्मस्तदु षु प्र वोचम् ॥
upa hvaye sudughāṃ dhenum etāṃ suhasto godhug uta dohad enām | śreṣṭhaṃ savaṃ savitā sāviṣan no 'bhīddho gharmas tad u ṣu pra vocam ||

English translation:

“I invoke the cow that is easily milked, that the handy milker may milk her; may Savitā accept this our excellent libation, that his heat may (thereby) increase; it is for this, verily, that I earnestly invoke him.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

The cow is the cloud, the milk is the rain; Vāyu or win, is the milker; the metaphor is continued in the following three hymns, where the calf is the world or mankind anxious for the rain, as the cause of abundance


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): dīrghatamā aucathyaḥ [dīrghatamas aucathya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): viśvedevā:;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

उप॑ । ह्व॒ये॒ । सु॒ऽदुघा॑म् । धे॒नुम् । ए॒ताम् । सु॒ऽहस्तः॑ । गो॒ऽधुक् । उ॒त । दो॒ह॒त् । ए॒ना॒म् । श्रेष्ठ॑म् । स॒वम् । स॒वि॒ता । सा॒वि॒ष॒त् । नः॒ । अ॒भिऽइ॑द्धः । घ॒र्मः । तत् । ऊँ॒ इति॑ । सु । प्र । वो॒च॒म् ॥
उप । ह्वये । सुदुघाम् । धेनुम् । एताम् । सुहस्तः । गोधुक् । उत । दोहत् । एनाम् । श्रेष्ठम् । सवम् । सविता । साविषत् । नः । अभिइद्धः । घर्मः । तत् । ऊँ इति । सु । प्र । वोचम् ॥
upa | hvaye | su-dughām | dhenum | etām | su-hastaḥ | go--dhuk | uta | dohat | enām | śreṣṭham | savam | savitā | sāviṣat | naḥ | abhi-iddhaḥ | gharmaḥ | tat | oṃ iti | su | pra | vocam

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 1.164.26 English analysis of grammar]



“towards; on; next.”

hvaye < hvā

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“raise; call on; call; summon.”

sudughāṃ < su


“very; well; good; nicely; beautiful; su; early; quite.”

sudughāṃ < dughām < dugha

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine


dhenum < dhenu

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

“cow; dhenu [word]; milk.”

etāṃ < etām < etad

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); etad [word].”

suhasto < su


“very; well; good; nicely; beautiful; su; early; quite.”

suhasto < hastaḥ < hasta

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“hand; hand; proboscis; hasta [word]; autograph.”

godhug < go

[noun], masculine

“cow; cattle; go [word]; Earth; bull; floor; milk; beam; sunbeam; leather; hide; horn; language; bowstring; earth; ox; Svarga.”

godhug < duh

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine




“and; besides; uta [indecl.]; similarly; alike; even.”

dohad < dohat < duh

[verb], singular, Present conjunctive (subjunctive)


enām < enad

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.).”

śreṣṭhaṃ < śreṣṭham < śreṣṭha

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“best; better; chief(a); beautiful.”

savaṃ < savam < sava

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“yajña; command; impulse; direction; momentum.”

savitā < savitṛ

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Savitar; sun; Surya; Savitṛ.”

sāviṣan < sāviṣat <

[verb], singular, Aorist conj./subj.

“give birth; urge; bestow; cause.”

no < naḥ < mad

[noun], dative, plural

“I; mine.”

'bhīddho < abhīddhaḥ < abhīndh < √indh

[verb noun], nominative, singular

gharmas < gharmaḥ < gharma

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“sunlight; heat; summer; Gharma; Gharma; boiler; perspiration; caldron.”

tad < tat < tad

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”



“ukāra; besides; now; indeed; u.”

ṣu < su


“very; well; good; nicely; beautiful; su; early; quite.”



“towards; ahead.”

vocam < vac

[verb], singular, Aorist inj. (proh.)

“say; describe; name; tell; address; enumerate; call; state; teach; explain; say; declare; speak; define; declare; order; address; recommend; answer; deem; recite; approve; proclaim; indicate; determine; mention; designate.”

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