Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 1.164.25

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

जग॑ता॒ सिन्धुं॑ दि॒व्य॑स्तभायद्रथंत॒रे सूर्यं॒ पर्य॑पश्यत् । गा॒य॒त्रस्य॑ स॒मिध॑स्ति॒स्र आ॑हु॒स्ततो॑ म॒ह्ना प्र रि॑रिचे महि॒त्वा ॥
जगता सिन्धुं दिव्यस्तभायद्रथंतरे सूर्यं पर्यपश्यत् । गायत्रस्य समिधस्तिस्र आहुस्ततो मह्ना प्र रिरिचे महित्वा ॥
jagatā sindhuṃ divy astabhāyad rathaṃtare sūryam pary apaśyat | gāyatrasya samidhas tisra āhus tato mahnā pra ririce mahitvā ||

English translation:

“With the hymns in the jagatī metre he fixed the rain in heaven, and surveyed the Sun in the rathantara. They have declared three divisions of the gāyatrī metre, whence it surpasses (all the rest) in force and majesty.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Fixed the rain in heaven: sindhum dvi astabhāyat: Brahmā, at the time of creation, fixed the sheder of  water, udakasya syandakam, in the sky; or, a refernce is to Āditya: jāgato vā eṣa ya eṣa tapati: he may be termed jāgata who gives heat (to the world);

Rathantara: a portion of the Sāma; Prajāpati beheld the sun in the hymn which sustains it: tadādhāra bhūtāyām ṛci; gāyatra metre: gāyatrasya samidhas tisra āhuḥ: samidh signifies pada, a division of a hymn; of which gāyatrī metre has three


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): dīrghatamā aucathyaḥ [dīrghatamas aucathya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): viśvedevā:;
Chandas (meter): svarāṭpaṅkti;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

जग॑ता । सिन्धु॑म् । दि॒वि । अ॒स्त॒भा॒य॒त् । र॒थ॒म्ऽत॒रे । सूर्य॑म् । परि॑ । अ॒प॒श्य॒त् । गा॒य॒त्रस्य॑ । स॒म्ऽइधः॑ । ति॒स्रः । आ॒हुः॒ । ततः॑ । म॒ह्रा । प्र । रि॒रि॒चे॒ । म॒हि॒ऽत्वा ॥
जगता । सिन्धुम् । दिवि । अस्तभायत् । रथम्तरे । सूर्यम् । परि । अपश्यत् । गायत्रस्य । सम्इधः । तिस्रः । आहुः । ततः । मह्रा । प्र । रिरिचे । महित्वा ॥
jagatā | sindhum | divi | astabhāyat | ratham-tare | sūryam | pari | apaśyat | gāyatrasya | sam-idhaḥ | tisraḥ | āhuḥ | tataḥ | mahrā | pra | ririce | mahi-tvā

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 1.164.25 English analysis of grammar]

jagatā < jagant

[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter

“universe; Earth; world; people; Jagatī; Loka; animal; being.”

sindhuṃ < sindhum < sindhu

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“river; Indus; sindhu [word].”

divy < divi < div

[noun], locative, singular, masculine

“sky; Svarga; day; div [word]; heaven and earth; day; dawn.”

astabhāyad < astabhāyat < stabhāy < √stambh

[verb], singular, Imperfect

rathantare < rathaṃtara

[noun], locative, singular, neuter


sūryam < sūrya

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“sun; Surya; sūrya [word]; right nostril; twelve; Calotropis gigantea Beng.; sūryakānta; sunlight; best.”

pary < pari


“from; about; around.”

apaśyat < paś

[verb], singular, Imperfect

“see; view; watch; meet; observe; think of; look; examine; behold; visit; understand.”

gāyatrasya < gāyatra

[noun], genitive, singular, neuter

“Gāyatrī; Gāyatra.”

samidhas < samidhaḥ < samidh

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“firewood; kindling; fuel; fire.”

tisra < tisraḥ < tri

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“three; tri/tisṛ [word].”

āhus < āhuḥ < ah

[verb], plural, Perfect indicative

“describe; state; say; enumerate; call; name; teach; tell; deem; explain; say; define.”

tato < tatas


“then; therefore; now; then; from there; subsequently; consequently; then; there; from that; for that reason; alternatively; consequently; furthermore.”

mahnā < mahan

[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter




“towards; ahead.”

ririce < ric

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“empty; liberate; concede; surrender; purge.”

mahitvā < mahi


“great; firm.”

mahitvā < tvā < tva

[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter

“state; quality; cause; reason.”

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