Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 1.164.16

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

स्त्रिय॑: स॒तीस्ताँ उ॑ मे पुं॒स आ॑हु॒: पश्य॑दक्ष॒ण्वान्न वि चे॑तद॒न्धः । क॒विर्यः पु॒त्रः स ई॒मा चि॑केत॒ यस्ता वि॑जा॒नात्स पि॒तुष्पि॒तास॑त् ॥
स्त्रियः सतीस्ताँ उ मे पुंस आहुः पश्यदक्षण्वान्न वि चेतदन्धः । कविर्यः पुत्रः स ईमा चिकेत यस्ता विजानात्स पितुष्पितासत् ॥
striyaḥ satīs tām̐ u me puṃsa āhuḥ paśyad akṣaṇvān na vi cetad andhaḥ | kavir yaḥ putraḥ sa īm ā ciketa yas tā vijānāt sa pituṣ pitāsat ||

English translation:

“They have called thes, my virtuous feminine les, males; he who has eyes beholds; the blind man sees not; he whois a sage son understands this, and he who discriminates is the father of the father.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Males: an instrumental nce of grammatical mysticism: raśmi, a ray of the sun, is here person nified as a feminine le, is properly a noun masculine; the father of the father: the sun is to be considered as the father of the rays of light, which are the cause of rain, or the fosterers or parent of the earth; the sun is, therefore, the father of the father, and he who knows this is identical with the sun

Details:

Ṛṣi (sage/seer): dīrghatamā aucathyaḥ [dīrghatamas aucathya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): viśvedevā:;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

स्त्रियः॑ । स॒तीः । तान् । ऊँ॒ इति॑ । मे॒ । पुं॒सः । आ॑आ॒हुः॒ । पश्य॑त् । अ॒क्ष॒ण्ऽवान् । न । वि । चे॒त॒त् । अ॒न्धः । क॒विः । यः । पु॒त्रः । सः । ई॒म् । आ । चि॒के॒त॒ । यः । ता । वि॒ऽजा॒नात् । सः । पि॒तुः । पि॒ता । अ॒स॒त् ॥
स्त्रियः । सतीः । तान् । ऊँ इति । मे । पुंसः । आआहुः । पश्यत् । अक्षण्वान् । न । वि । चेतत् । अन्धः । कविः । यः । पुत्रः । सः । ईम् । आ । चिकेत । यः । ता । विजानात् । सः । पितुः । पिता । असत् ॥
striyaḥ | satīḥ | tān | oṃ iti | me | puṃsaḥ | āāhuḥ | paśyat | akṣaṇ-vān | na | vi | cetat | andhaḥ | kaviḥ | yaḥ | putraḥ | saḥ | īm | ā | ciketa | yaḥ | tā | vi-jānāt | saḥ | pituḥ | pitā | asat

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 1.164.16 English analysis of grammar]

striyaḥ < strī

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“woman; wife; feminine; strīvajra; sexual activity; strī [word]; daughter; female.”

satīs < satīḥ < as

[verb noun], accusative, plural

“be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”

tāṃ < tām < tad

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

u

[adverb]

“ukāra; besides; now; indeed; u.”

me < mad

[noun], dative, singular

“I; mine.”

puṃsa < puṃsaḥ < puṃs

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“man; masculine; man; puṃvajra; puruṣa; son; puṃs [word].”

āhuḥ < ah

[verb], plural, Perfect indicative

“describe; state; say; enumerate; call; name; teach; tell; deem; explain; say; define.”

paśyad < paśyat < paś

[verb], singular, Present injunctive

“see; view; watch; meet; observe; think of; look; examine; behold; visit; understand.”

akṣaṇvān < akṣaṇvat

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“eyed.”

na

[adverb]

“not; like; no; na [word].”

vi

[adverb]

“apart; away; away.”

cetad < cetat < cit

[verb], singular, Present injunctive

“notice; observe; attend to; intend.”

andhaḥ < andha

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“blind; andha [word]; andha; blind; complete; dark.”

kavir < kaviḥ < kavi

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“poet; wise man; bard; Venus; Uśanas; kavi [word]; Kavi; prophet; guru; Brahma.”

yaḥ < yad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

putraḥ < putra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“son; putra [word]; male child; Putra; Bodhisattva.”

sa < saḥ < tad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

īm < īṃ

[adverb]

ā

[adverb]

“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”

ciketa < cit

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“notice; observe; attend to; intend.”

yas < yaḥ < yad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

< tāḥ < tad

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

vijānāt < vijñā < √jñā

[verb], singular, Present injunctive

“know; diagnose; detect; find; identify; call; understand; observe; name; deem; recognize; explain; know.”

sa < tad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

pituṣ < pituḥ < pitṛ

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“father; Pitṛ; ancestor; parent; paternal ancestor; pitṛ [word]; forefather.”

pitāsat < pitā < pitṛ

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“father; Pitṛ; ancestor; parent; paternal ancestor; pitṛ [word]; forefather.”

pitāsat < asat < as

[verb], singular, Present conjunctive (subjunctive)

“be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”

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