Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 1.162.2

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

यन्नि॒र्णिजा॒ रेक्ण॑सा॒ प्रावृ॑तस्य रा॒तिं गृ॑भी॒तां मु॑ख॒तो नय॑न्ति । सुप्रा॑ङ॒जो मेम्य॑द्वि॒श्वरू॑प इन्द्रापू॒ष्णोः प्रि॒यमप्ये॑ति॒ पाथ॑: ॥
यन्निर्णिजा रेक्णसा प्रावृतस्य रातिं गृभीतां मुखतो नयन्ति । सुप्राङजो मेम्यद्विश्वरूप इन्द्रापूष्णोः प्रियमप्येति पाथः ॥
yan nirṇijā rekṇasā prāvṛtasya rātiṃ gṛbhītām mukhato nayanti | suprāṅ ajo memyad viśvarūpa indrāpūṣṇoḥ priyam apy eti pāthaḥ ||

English translation:

“When they, (the priests), bring the prepared offering to the presence (of the horse), who has been bathed and decorated with rich (trappings), the various-coloured goat going before him, bleating, becomes an acceptable offering to Indra and Pūṣan.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

The prepared offering: rātim-gṛbhītām = lit. the seized wealth; the offering to be made for the horse;

Pūṣan = Agni; the goat is to be tied to the front of the horse at the sacrificial post, such a goat, black-necked, kṛṣnagrīva (āgneyaḥ kṛṣṇagrīvaḥ: Taittirīya Saṃhitā 5.5.22), being always regarded as an āgneya paśu, or victim sacred to Agni, and to be offered to him (Kātyāyana Sūtra 98). A black goat is also dedicated to pūṣan, along with soma (Yajus. xxix.58; but, he is also to be attached to the nābhi or middle of the horse (Yajus. xxiv.1)


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): dīrghatamā aucathyaḥ [dīrghatamas aucathya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): mitrādayo liṅgoktāḥ ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

यत् । निः॒ऽनिजा॑ । रेक्ण॑सा । प्रावृ॑तस्य । रा॒तिम् । गृ॒भी॒ताम् । मु॒ख॒तः । नय॑न्ति । सुऽप्रा॑ङ् । अ॒जः । मेम्य॑त् । वि॒श्वऽरू॑पः । इ॒न्द्रा॒पू॒ष्णोः । प्रि॒यम् । अपि॑ । ए॒ति॒ । पाथः॑ ॥
यत् । निःनिजा । रेक्णसा । प्रावृतस्य । रातिम् । गृभीताम् । मुखतः । नयन्ति । सुप्राङ् । अजः । मेम्यत् । विश्वरूपः । इन्द्रापूष्णोः । प्रियम् । अपि । एति । पाथः ॥
yat | niḥ-nijā | rekṇasā | prāvṛtasya | rātim | gṛbhītām | mukhataḥ | nayanti | su-prāṅ | ajaḥ | memyat | viśva-rūpaḥ | indrāpūṣṇoḥ | priyam | api | eti | pāthaḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 1.162.2 English analysis of grammar]

yan < yat


“once [when]; because; that; if; how.”

nirṇijā < nirṇij

[noun], instrumental, singular, feminine

“attire; garment.”

rekṇasā < rekṇas

[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter

“property; wealth; bequest; inheritance.”

prāvṛtasya < prāvṛ < √vṛ

[verb noun], genitive, singular

“cover; envelop; wear.”

rātiṃ < rātim < rāti

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

“gift; bounty; favor.”

gṛbhītām < grah

[verb noun], accusative, singular

“take; grasp; take out; extract; perceive; pick; assume; include; accept; understand; use; learn; possess; keep; choose; accept; afflict; suck; paralyze; mention; mistake; eat; wear; embrace; fill into; capture; eclipse; get; collect; hand down; marry; heed; touch.”

mukhato < mukhatas


nayanti <

[verb], plural, Present indikative

“bring; lead; spend; decant; enter (a state); remove; take out; take away; enforce; marry; carry; fill into; bring; learn; go out; add.”

suprāṅ < su


“very; well; good; nicely; beautiful; su; early; quite.”

suprāṅ < prāṅ < prāñc

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“eastern; aforesaid(a); former(a); eastbound; easterly; anterior; forward; prāñc [word].”

ajo < ajaḥ < aja

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“goat; Vishnu; Brahma; Shiva; Aja; aja [word]; Aja; aj; Ocimum gratissimum; Puruṣa.”

memyad < memyat < memy < √mā

[verb noun], accusative, singular

viśvarūpa < viśva


“all(a); whole; complete; each(a); viśva [word]; completely; wholly.”

viśvarūpa < rūpaḥ < rūpa

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“form; appearance; beauty; look; shape; shape; symptom; feature; nature; guise; rūpa [word]; one; appearance; likeness; color; kind; vowel; type; disguise; aspect; form; derivative; omen; vision.”

indrāpūṣṇoḥ < indra

[noun], masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

indrāpūṣṇoḥ < pūṣṇoḥ < pūṣan

[noun], genitive, plural, masculine

“Pushan; pūṣan [word]; sun.”

priyam < priya

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“beloved; pleasant; dear; fond(p); wanted; priya [word]; favorite; good; liked; suitable; proper.”

apy < api


“besides; even; surely; though; furthermore; among; contrastingly; assuredly.”

eti < i

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“go; travel; enter (a state); return; walk; continue; reach; ask.”

pāthaḥ < pāthas

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“pāthas [word]; water; place.”

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