Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 1.150.1

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

पु॒रु त्वा॑ दा॒श्वान्वो॑चे॒ऽरिर॑ग्ने॒ तव॑ स्वि॒दा । तो॒दस्ये॑व शर॒ण आ म॒हस्य॑ ॥
पुरु त्वा दाश्वान्वोचेऽरिरग्ने तव स्विदा । तोदस्येव शरण आ महस्य ॥
puru tvā dāśvān voce 'rir agne tava svid ā | todasyeva śaraṇa ā mahasya ||

English translation:

“Presenting many offerings, I address you, Agni, ever coming into your presence (like a servant) in the dwelling of a mighty master.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Like a servant: arir agne tava svidā: ari = enemy, assailant amitra, unfriend (Nirukta 5.7); the word is equated with artā, a servant, in the character of bringing oblations and the like before Agni: yato aham agne tava svit tavaiva ā abhimukhyena arir artā havirādi prāpaṇena sevako aham, 'Since I, Agni, going verily into your presence for the purpose of conveying oblations, I am a servant'. A mighty master: todasya, a governor, a master; śikṣakasya svāminaḥ = lit. a tormentor, a tyrant

Details:

Ṛṣi (sage/seer): dīrghatamā aucathyaḥ [dīrghatamas aucathya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): agniḥ ;
Chandas (meter): bhuriggāyatrī ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

पु॒रु । त्वा॒ । दा॒स्वान् । वो॒चे॒ । अ॒रिः । अ॒ग्ने॒ । तव॑ । स्वि॒त् । आ । तो॒दस्य॑ऽइव । श॒र॒णे । आ । म॒हस्य॑ ॥
पुरु । त्वा । दास्वान् । वोचे । अरिः । अग्ने । तव । स्वित् । आ । तोदस्यइव । शरणे । आ । महस्य ॥
puru | tvā | dāsvān | voce | ariḥ | agne | tava | svit | ā | todasya-iva | śaraṇe | ā | mahasya

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 1.150.1 English analysis of grammar]

puru

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“many; much(a); very.”

tvā < tvad

[noun], accusative, singular

“you.”

dāśvān < dāś

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“sacrifice; give.”

voce < vac

[verb], singular, Aorist inj. (proh.)

“say; describe; name; tell; address; enumerate; call; state; teach; explain; say; declare; speak; define; declare; order; address; recommend; answer; deem; recite; approve; proclaim; indicate; determine; mention; designate.”

'rir < ariḥ < ari

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“enemy; ari; arivarga.”

agne < agni

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“fire; Agni; sacrificial fire; digestion; cautery; Plumbago zeylanica; fire; vahni; agni [word]; agnikarman; gold; three; jāraṇa; pyre; fireplace; heating.”

tava < tvad

[noun], genitive, singular

“you.”

svid

[adverb]

“svid [word].”

ā

[adverb]

“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”

todasyeva < todasya < toda

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“toda; ache; prickling.”

todasyeva < iva

[adverb]

“like; as it were; somehow; just so.”

śaraṇa < śaraṇe < śaraṇa

[noun], locative, singular, neuter

“refuge; safety; shelter; house; protection.”

ā

[adverb]

“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”

mahasya < maha

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“great; abundant.”

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