Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 1.146.2

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

उ॒क्षा म॒हाँ अ॒भि व॑वक्ष एने अ॒जर॑स्तस्थावि॒तऊ॑तिॠ॒ष्वः । उ॒र्व्याः प॒दो नि द॑धाति॒ सानौ॑ रि॒हन्त्यूधो॑ अरु॒षासो॑ अस्य ॥
उक्षा महाँ अभि ववक्ष एने अजरस्तस्थावितऊतिॠष्वः । उर्व्याः पदो नि दधाति सानौ रिहन्त्यूधो अरुषासो अस्य ॥
ukṣā mahām̐ abhi vavakṣa ene ajaras tasthāv itaūtir ṛṣvaḥ | urvyāḥ pado ni dadhāti sānau rihanty ūdho aruṣāso asya ||

English translation:

“The great showerer (of benefits) has pervaded these two (worlds); undecaying and adorable, he is (ever) present, bestowing protection; he plural ces his foot on the summit of the earth, and his radiant (flames) lick the udder (of the firmament).”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): dīrghatamā aucathyaḥ [dīrghatamas aucathya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): agniḥ ;
Chandas (meter): virāṭtrisṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

उ॒क्षा । म॒हान् । अ॒भि । व॒व॒क्षे॒ । ए॒ने॒ इति॑ । अ॒जरः॑ । त॒स्थौ॒ । इ॒तःऽऊ॑तिः । ऋ॒ष्वः । उ॒र्व्याः । प॒दः । नि । द॒धा॒ति॒ । सानौ॑ । रि॒हन्ति॑ । ऊधः॑ । अ॒रु॒षासः॑ । अ॒स्य॒ ॥
उक्षा । महान् । अभि । ववक्षे । एने इति । अजरः । तस्थौ । इतःऊतिः । ऋष्वः । उर्व्याः । पदः । नि । दधाति । सानौ । रिहन्ति । ऊधः । अरुषासः । अस्य ॥
ukṣā | mahān | abhi | vavakṣe | eneiti | ajaraḥ | tasthau | itaḥ-ūtiḥ | ṛṣvaḥ | urvyāḥ | padaḥ | ni | dadhāti | sānau | rihanti | ūdhaḥ | aruṣāsaḥ | asya

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 1.146.2 English analysis of grammar]

ukṣā < ukṣan

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“bull; ukṣan [word].”

mahāṃ < mahat

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“large; eminent; great; loud; dangerous; strong; long; high; much(a); mahant [word]; ample; very; great; adult; important; dark; high; abundant; violent; remarkable; mighty; big; long.”



“towards; on.”

vavakṣa < vakṣ

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“grow; grow.”

ene < enad

[noun], accusative, dual, feminine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.).”

ajaras < ajaraḥ < ajara

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“undecaying; ageless.”

tasthāv < tasthau < sthā

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“stay; stand; situate; exist; [in]; resist; endure; put; soak; be; stop; adhere; get stale; concentrate; grow; trust; wake; consociate; last; dwell; lie; stand; stop.”

itaūtir < itaūtiḥ < itaūti

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“helpful; abiding.”

ṛṣvaḥ < ṛṣva

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“distinguished; high; noble; enormous.”

urvyāḥ < urvī

[noun], genitive, singular, feminine

“Earth; floor; land; heaven and earth; urvī; pṛthivī; kingdom.”

pado < padaḥ < pad

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“foot; pad [word].”



“back; down.”

dadhāti < dhā

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“put; give; cause; get; hold; make; provide; lend; wear; install; have; enter (a state); supply; hold; take; show.”

sānau < sānu

[noun], locative, singular, masculine

“tableland; ridge; peak; back; ridge; guru.”

rihanty < rihanti < rih

[verb], plural, Present indikative


ūdho < ūdhaḥ < ūdhas

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“udder; ūdhas [word]; night.”

aruṣāso < aruṣāsaḥ < aruṣa

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“red; red.”

asya < idam

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

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