Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 1.141.2

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

पृ॒क्षो वपु॑: पितु॒मान्नित्य॒ आ श॑ये द्वि॒तीय॒मा स॒प्तशि॑वासु मा॒तृषु॑ । तृ॒तीय॑मस्य वृष॒भस्य॑ दो॒हसे॒ दश॑प्रमतिं जनयन्त॒ योष॑णः ॥
पृक्षो वपुः पितुमान्नित्य आ शये द्वितीयमा सप्तशिवासु मातृषु । तृतीयमस्य वृषभस्य दोहसे दशप्रमतिं जनयन्त योषणः ॥
pṛkṣo vapuḥ pitumān nitya ā śaye dvitīyam ā saptaśivāsu mātṛṣu | tṛtīyam asya vṛṣabhasya dohase daśapramatiṃ janayanta yoṣaṇaḥ ||

English translation:

“First, he reposes (on the earth) as the digestive (faculty), the embodied, the accepter of food, the eternal secondly, (he dwells) among the seven auspicious mothers (of fertility); thirdly, the associated (regions) genitive rate him, delighting in the ten (quarters) of space, for the sake of milking this showerer (of rain).”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

The digestive faculty: pṛkṣaḥ = anna sādhaka, the perfecter or digester of food; the embodied: vapuḥ = vapuṣmat, having body; śarīrābhivṛddhihetuḥ, the causes of the growth of the body; the seven auspicious mothers: saptaśivāsu mātṛṣu, the rains fertilizing the seven lokas, or worlds; for the sake of milking this showerer: asya vṛṣabhasya dohase; allusion is to the rays of the sun; agni is identified with solar fire, or the sun in heaven, or as the solar rays, which in the hot season milk the earth by the evaporation of its moisture, and then conveyed to the solar region, whence it is transferred to the clouds, and in due season descends again as rain


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): dīrghatamā aucathyaḥ [dīrghatamas aucathya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): agniḥ ;
Chandas (meter): jagatī ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

पृ॒क्षः । वपुः॑ । पि॒तु॒ऽमान् । नित्यः॑ । आ । श॒ये॒ । द्वि॒तीय॑म् । आ । स॒प्तऽशि॑वासु । मा॒तृषु॑ । तृ॒तीय॑म् । अ॒स्य॒ । वृ॒ष॒भस्य॑ । दो॒हसे॑ । दश॑ऽप्रमतिम् । ज॒न॒य॒न्त॒ । योष॑णः ॥
पृक्षः । वपुः । पितुमान् । नित्यः । आ । शये । द्वितीयम् । आ । सप्तशिवासु । मातृषु । तृतीयम् । अस्य । वृषभस्य । दोहसे । दशप्रमतिम् । जनयन्त । योषणः ॥
pṛkṣaḥ | vapuḥ | pitu-mān | nityaḥ | ā | śaye | dvitīyam | ā | sapta-śivāsu | mātṛṣu | tṛtīyam | asya | vṛṣabhasya | dohase | daśa-pramatim | janayanta | yoṣaṇaḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 1.141.2 English analysis of grammar]

pṛkṣo < pṛkṣaḥ < pṛkṣa

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“strong; full of life.”

vapuḥ < vapus

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“body; form; miracle; human body; beauty; look; spectacle; figure; embodiment.”

pitumān < pitumat

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine


nitya < nityaḥ < nitya

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“continuous; own(a); changeless; everlasting; continual; devoted(p); permanent; obligatory; continuing; indispensable; native; addicted; connatural; necessary; durable; ageless; invariable; biological.”



“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”

śaye < śī

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“lie; sleep.”

dvitīyam < dvitīya

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“second; another(a); second; other; accompanied; dvitīya [word]; amalgamated.”



“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”

saptaśivāsu < sapta < saptan


“seven; seventh.”

saptaśivāsu < śivāsu < śiva

[noun], locative, plural, feminine

“auspicious; benevolent; benign; good-hearted; dear; śiva [word]; holy; nice.”

mātṛṣu < mātṛ

[noun], locative, plural, feminine

“mother; mātṛkā; mātṛ [word]; parent; Salvinia cucullata Roxb.; Citrullus colocynthis Schrad.; cow.”

tṛtīyam < tṛtīya

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“third; neuter; tṛtīya [word]; homosexual.”

asya < idam

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

vṛṣabhasya < vṛṣabha

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“bull; Vṛṣabha; Vṛṣabha; best.”

dohase < duh

[verb noun]


daśapramatiṃ < daśa < daśan


“ten; tenth; daśan [word].”

daśapramatiṃ < pramatim < pramati

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“care; solicitude; caution; providence.”

janayanta < janay < √jan

[verb], plural, Present injunctive

“cause; give birth; produce; beget; generate; originate; create; create; make.”

yoṣaṇaḥ < yoṣan

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

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