Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 1.139.1

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अस्तु॒ श्रौष॑ट् पु॒रो अ॒ग्निं धि॒या द॑ध॒ आ नु तच्छर्धो॑ दि॒व्यं वृ॑णीमह इन्द्रवा॒यू वृ॑णीमहे । यद्ध॑ क्रा॒णा वि॒वस्व॑ति॒ नाभा॑ सं॒दायि॒ नव्य॑सी । अध॒ प्र सू न॒ उप॑ यन्तु धी॒तयो॑ दे॒वाँ अच्छा॒ न धी॒तय॑: ॥
अस्तु श्रौषट् पुरो अग्निं धिया दध आ नु तच्छर्धो दिव्यं वृणीमह इन्द्रवायू वृणीमहे । यद्ध क्राणा विवस्वति नाभा संदायि नव्यसी । अध प्र सू न उप यन्तु धीतयो देवाँ अच्छा न धीतयः ॥
astu śrauṣaṭ puro agniṃ dhiyā dadha ā nu tac chardho divyaṃ vṛṇīmaha indravāyū vṛṇīmahe | yad dha krāṇā vivasvati nābhā saṃdāyi navyasī | adha pra sū na upa yantu dhītayo devām̐ acchā na dhītayaḥ ||

English translation:

“May our prayers be heard, I plural ce before (me) Agni with reverence; we have recourse to his celestial might; we have recourse to Indra and to Vāyu; which doing, a new (hymn) has been addressed (by us) to the radiant navel (of the earth); and thereupon may our pious rites attain the gods; may our pious rites attain the presence of the gods.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Astu srauṣat = asyāḥ stuter śravaṇam bhavatu, may there be a hearing of this hymn, or śrotā bhavatu = may Agni or other deity be a hearer. śrauṣat. is an exclamation uttered when the butter is poured upon the fire, on the altar, as an offering to the gods. The radiant navel of the earth: may refer to the altar or the sacrifice; yajñam āhur bhuvanasya nābhim (yajamāhurbhuvanasya nābhim--Taittirīya Saṃhitā, they have called the sacrifice the navel of the world; the text adds vivasvati = dīptimat, shining; Vivasvat may also refer to the Sun-god


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): parucchepo daivodāsiḥ [parucchepa daivodāsi];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): viśvedevā:;
Chandas (meter): nicṛdatyaṣṭiḥ ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अस्तु॑ । श्रौष॑ट् । पु॒रः । अ॒ग्निम् । धि॒या । द॒धे॒ । आ । नु । तत् । शर्धः॑ । दि॒व्यम् । वृ॒णी॒म॒हे॒ । इ॒न्द्र॒वा॒यू इति॑ । वृ॒णी॒म॒हे॒ । यत् । ह॒ । क्रा॒णा । वि॒वस्व॑ति । नाभा॑ । स॒म्ऽदायि॑ । नव्य॑सी । अध॑ । प्र । सु । नः॒ । उप॑ । य॒न्तु॒ । धी॒तयः॑ । दे॒वान् । अच्छ॑ । न । धी॒तयः॑ ॥
अस्तु । श्रौषट् । पुरः । अग्निम् । धिया । दधे । आ । नु । तत् । शर्धः । दिव्यम् । वृणीमहे । इन्द्रवायू इति । वृणीमहे । यत् । ह । क्राणा । विवस्वति । नाभा । सम्दायि । नव्यसी । अध । प्र । सु । नः । उप । यन्तु । धीतयः । देवान् । अच्छ । न । धीतयः ॥
astu | śrauṣaṭ | puraḥ | agnim | dhiyā | dadhe | ā | nu | tat | śardhaḥ | divyam | vṛṇīmahe | indravāyū iti | vṛṇīmahe | yat | ha | krāṇā | vivasyati | nābhā | sam-dāyi | navyasī | agha | pra | su | naḥ | upa | yantu | dhītayaḥ | devān | accha | na | dhītayaḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 1.139.1 English analysis of grammar]

astu < as

[verb], singular, Present imperative

“be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”




puro < puras


“ahead; puras [word]; easterly; eastward; east; earlier.”

agnīṃ < agnim < agni

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“fire; Agni; sacrificial fire; digestion; cautery; Plumbago zeylanica; fire; vahni; agni [word]; agnikarman; gold; three; jāraṇa; pyre; fireplace; heating.”

dhiyā < dhī

[noun], instrumental, singular, feminine

“intelligence; prayer; mind; insight; idea; hymn; purpose; art; knowledge.”

dadha < dadhe < dhā

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“put; give; cause; get; hold; make; provide; lend; wear; install; have; enter (a state); supply; hold; take; show.”



“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”



“now; already.”

tacchardho < tat < tad

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

tacchardho < śardhaḥ < śardhas

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter


divyaṃ < divyam < divya

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“divine; celestial; divine; heavenly; divine; beautiful; rain; agreeable.”

vṛṇīmaha < vṛṇīmahe < vṛ

[verb], plural, Present indikative

“choose; ask.”

indravāyū < indra

[noun], masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

indravāyū < vāyū < vāyu

[noun], accusative, dual, masculine

“wind; Vayu; vāta; prāṇa (coll.); air; air; fart; breath; northwest; draft; vāyu [word]; Vāyu; Marut.”

vṛṇīmahe < vṛ

[verb], plural, Present indikative

“choose; ask.”

yaddha < yat


“once [when]; because; that; if; how.”

yaddha < ha


“indeed; ha [word].”

krāṇā < kṛ

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“make; perform; cause; produce; shape; construct; do; put; fill into; use; fuel; transform; bore; act; write; create; prepare; administer; dig; prepare; treat; take effect; add; trace; put on; process; treat; heed; hire; act; produce; assume; eat; ignite; chop; treat; obey; manufacture; appoint; evacuate; choose; understand; insert; happen; envelop; weigh; observe; practice; lend; bring; duplicate; plant; kṛ; concentrate; mix; knot; join; take; provide; utter; compose.”

vivasvati < vivasvant

[noun], locative, singular, masculine

“Surya; sun; Vivasvant; Vivasvant.”

nābhā < nābhi

[noun], locative, singular, feminine

“navel; hub; kinship; beginning; origin; umbilical cord; nābhi [word]; friendship; center.”

saṃdāyi < saṃdā < √dā

[verb], singular, Aorist passive

navyasī < navīyas

[noun], nominative, singular, feminine

“new; fresh; up-to-the-minute.”



“then; and; therefore; now.”



“towards; ahead.”

< su


“very; well; good; nicely; beautiful; su; early; quite.”

na < naḥ < mad

[noun], accusative, plural

“I; mine.”



“towards; on; next.”

yantu < i

[verb], plural, Present imperative

“go; travel; enter (a state); return; walk; continue; reach; ask.”

dhītayo < dhītayaḥ < dhīti

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“thinking; prayer; understanding.”

devāṃ < deva

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”



“towards; accha [prefix].”



“not; like; no; na [word].”

dhītayaḥ < dhīti

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“thinking; prayer; understanding.”

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