Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 1.85.5

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

प्र यद्रथे॑षु॒ पृष॑ती॒रयु॑ग्ध्वं॒ वाजे॒ अद्रिं॑ मरुतो रं॒हय॑न्तः । उ॒तारु॒षस्य॒ वि ष्य॑न्ति॒ धारा॒श्चर्मे॑वो॒दभि॒र्व्यु॑न्दन्ति॒ भूम॑ ॥
प्र यद्रथेषु पृषतीरयुग्ध्वं वाजे अद्रिं मरुतो रंहयन्तः । उतारुषस्य वि ष्यन्ति धाराश्चर्मेवोदभिर्व्युन्दन्ति भूम ॥
pra yad ratheṣu pṛṣatīr ayugdhvaṃ vāje adrim maruto raṃhayantaḥ | utāruṣasya vi ṣyanti dhārāś carmevodabhir vy undanti bhūma ||

English translation:

“When, Maruts, urging on the cloud, for the sake of (providing) food, you have yoked the deer to your chariots, the drops fall from the radiant (sun), and moisten the earth, like a hide, with water.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Aruṣa = radiant (applied to the sun or to the Agni of lightning, a harbinger of rain


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): gotamo rāhūgaṇaḥ [gotama rāhūgaṇa];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): marūtaḥ;
Chandas (meter): virāṭtrisṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

प्र । यत् । रथे॑षु । पृष॑तीः । अयु॑ग्ध्वम् । वाजे॑ । अद्रि॑म् । म॒रु॒तः॒ । रं॒हय॑न्तः । उ॒त । अ॒रु॒षस्य॑ । वि । स्य॒न्ति॒ । धाराः॑ । चर्म॑ऽइव । उ॒दऽभिः॑ । वि । उ॒न्दन्ति॑ । भूम॑ ॥
प्र । यत् । रथेषु । पृषतीः । अयुग्ध्वम् । वाजे । अद्रिम् । मरुतः । रंहयन्तः । उत । अरुषस्य । वि । स्यन्ति । धाराः । चर्मइव । उदभिः । वि । उन्दन्ति । भूम ॥
pra | yat | ratheṣu | pṛṣatīḥ | ayugdhvam | vāje | adrim | marutaḥ | raṃhayantaḥ | uta | aruṣasya | vi | syanti | dhārāḥ | carma-iva | uda-bhiḥ | vi | undanti | bhūma

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 1.85.5 English analysis of grammar]



“towards; ahead.”

yad < yat


“once [when]; because; that; if; how.”

ratheṣu < ratha

[noun], locative, plural, masculine

“chariot; warrior; ratha [word]; Dalbergia oojeinensis; rattan.”

pṛṣatīr < pṛṣatīḥ < pṛṣatī

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

ayugdhvaṃ < ayugdhvam < yuj

[verb], plural, Root aorist (Ind.)

“mix; use; endow; yoke; accompany; to practice Yoga; connect; hire; administer; compound; affect; add; concentrate; unite; join; prosecute; combine; supply; compound; attach to; appoint; fill; process; mobilize; mount; complement; eat; join; treat; coincide; affect; challenge.”

vāje < vāja

[noun], locative, singular, masculine

“prize; Vāja; reward; reward; Ribhus; vigor; strength; contest.”

adrim < adri

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“mountain; rock; seven; stone; adri; grindstone; adri; rock.”

maruto < marutaḥ < marut

[noun], vocative, plural, masculine

“Marut; vāta; wind; Vayu.”

raṃhayantaḥ < raṃhay < √raṃh

[verb noun], nominative, plural

“rush; rush.”

utāruṣasya < uta


“and; besides; uta [indecl.]; similarly; alike; even.”

utāruṣasya < aruṣasya < aruṣa

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“red; red.”



“apart; away; away.”

ṣyanti <

[verb], plural, Present indikative


dhārāś < dhārāḥ < dhārā

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“flush; flow; current; spring; fountain.”

carmevodabhir < carmā < carman

[noun], nominative, plural, neuter

“leather; hide; shield; skin; carman [word]; carman; hide.”

carmevodabhir < iva


“like; as it were; somehow; just so.”

carmevodabhir < udabhiḥ < udan

[noun], instrumental, plural, neuter

“water; body of water.”

vy < vi


“apart; away; away.”

undanti < und

[verb], plural, Present indikative

bhūma < bhūman

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“Earth; floor.”

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