Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 1.80.15

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

न॒हि नु याद॑धी॒मसीन्द्रं॒ को वी॒र्या॑ प॒रः । तस्मि॑न्नृ॒म्णमु॒त क्रतुं॑ दे॒वा ओजां॑सि॒ सं द॑धु॒रर्च॒न्ननु॑ स्व॒राज्य॑म् ॥
नहि नु यादधीमसीन्द्रं को वीर्या परः । तस्मिन्नृम्णमुत क्रतुं देवा ओजांसि सं दधुरर्चन्ननु स्वराज्यम् ॥
nahi nu yād adhīmasīndraṃ ko vīryā paraḥ | tasmin nṛmṇam uta kratuṃ devā ojāṃsi saṃ dadhur arcann anu svarājyam ||

English translation:

“We know not of a certainty the all-pervading Indra; who (does know him, abiding) afar off in his strength? for in him have the gods concentrated riches, and worship, and power, manifesting his own sovereignty.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Ko-vīryāparaḥ, lit. who with vigour


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): gotamo rāhūgaṇaḥ [gotama rāhūgaṇa];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): bhurigbṛhatī ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

न॒हि । नु । यात् । अ॒धि॒ऽइ॒मसि॑ । इन्द्र॑म् । कः । वी॒र्या॑ । प॒रः । तस्मि॑न् । नृ॒म्णम् । उ॒त । क्रतु॑म् । दे॒वाः । ओजां॑सि । सम् । द॒धुः॒ । अर्च॑न् । अनु॑ । स्व॒ऽराज्य॑म् ॥
नहि । नु । यात् । अधिइमसि । इन्द्रम् । कः । वीर्या । परः । तस्मिन् । नृम्णम् । उत । क्रतुम् । देवाः । ओजांसि । सम् । दधुः । अर्चन् । अनु । स्वराज्यम् ॥
nahi | nu | yāt | adhi-imasi | indram | kaḥ | vīryā | paraḥ | tasmin | nṛmṇam | uta | kratum | devāḥ | ojāṃsi | sam | dadhuḥ | arcan | anu | sva-rājyam

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 1.80.15 English analysis of grammar]





“now; already.”

yād < yāt



adhīmasīndraṃ < adhīmasi < adhī < √i

[verb], plural, Present indikative

“learn; learn; recite; read; understand.”

adhīmasīndraṃ < indram < indra

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

ko < kaḥ < ka

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“what; who; ka [pronoun].”

vīryā < vīrya

[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter

“potency; vīrya; heroism; potency; strength; semen; power; deed; active agent; efficacy; vīryapāramitā; gold; vigor; vīrya [word]; virility; manfulness; jewel; force.”

paraḥ < para

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“best; other; following; devoted(p); extreme; highest; otherwordly; better; hostile; maximal; distant; another(a); para [word]; upper; concluding; foreign; earlier; worse; longer; finest; excessive.”

tasmin < tad

[noun], locative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

nṛmṇam < nṛmṇa

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“manhood; power.”



“and; besides; uta [indecl.]; similarly; alike; even.”

kratuṃ < kratum < kratu

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“yajña; decision; plan; deliberation; intelligence; Kratu; will; kratu [word]; desire; resoluteness; ritual.”

devā < devāḥ < deva

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

ojāṃsi < ojas

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter

“strength; power; ojas; ojas [word]; potency; might.”

saṃ < sam


“sam; together; together; saṃ.”

dadhur < dadhuḥ < dhā

[verb], plural, Perfect indicative

“put; give; cause; get; hold; make; provide; lend; wear; install; have; enter (a state); supply; hold; take; show.”

arcann < arcan < arc

[verb], plural, Present injunctive

“sing; worship; honor; praise; welcome.”



“subsequently; behind; along; towards; because.”

svarājyam < sva


“own(a); respective(a); akin(p); sva [word]; individual; present(a); independent.”

svarājyam < rājyam < rājya

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“kingdom; kingship; sovereignty; rājya [word].”

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