Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 1.61.9

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अ॒स्येदे॒व प्र रि॑रिचे महि॒त्वं दि॒वस्पृ॑थि॒व्याः पर्य॒न्तरि॑क्षात् । स्व॒राळिन्द्रो॒ दम॒ आ वि॒श्वगू॑र्तः स्व॒रिरम॑त्रो ववक्षे॒ रणा॑य ॥
अस्येदेव प्र रिरिचे महित्वं दिवस्पृथिव्याः पर्यन्तरिक्षात् । स्वराळिन्द्रो दम आ विश्वगूर्तः स्वरिरमत्रो ववक्षे रणाय ॥
asyed eva pra ririce mahitvaṃ divas pṛthivyāḥ pary antarikṣāt | svarāḻ indro dama ā viśvagūrtaḥ svarir amatro vavakṣe raṇāya ||

English translation:

“His magnitude verily exceeds that of the heaven, and earth and sky; Indra, self-irradiating in his dwelling, equal to every exploit, engaged with no unworthy foe, and killed in conflict, calls to battle.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Calling the clouds to battle or to collide, to genitive rate rain


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): nodhā gautamaḥ [nodhas gautama];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अ॒स्य । इत् । ए॒व । प्र । रि॒रि॒चे॒ । म॒हि॒त्वम् । दि॒वः । पृ॒थि॒व्याः । परि॑ । अ॒न्तरि॑क्षात् । स्व॒ऽराट् । इन्द्रः॑ । दमे॑ । आ । वि॒श्वऽगू॑र्तः । सु॒ऽअ॒रिः । अम॑त्रः । व॒व॒क्षे॒ । रणा॑य ॥
अस्य । इत् । एव । प्र । रिरिचे । महित्वम् । दिवः । पृथिव्याः । परि । अन्तरिक्षात् । स्वराट् । इन्द्रः । दमे । आ । विश्वगूर्तः । सुअरिः । अमत्रः । ववक्षे । रणाय ॥
asya | it | eva | pra | ririce | mahitvam | divaḥ | pṛthivyāḥ | pari | antarikṣāt | sva-rāṭ | indraḥ | dame | ā | viśva-gūrtaḥ | su-ariḥ | amatraḥ | vavakṣe | raṇāya

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 1.61.9 English analysis of grammar]

asyed < asya < idam

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

asyed < id


“indeed; assuredly; entirely.”



“indeed; merely; thus; even; surely; same; eva [word]; successively; immediately; in truth.”



“towards; ahead.”

ririce < ric

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“empty; liberate; concede; surrender; purge.”

mahitvaṃ < mahi


“great; firm.”

mahitvaṃ < tvam < tva

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“state; quality; cause; reason.”

divas < divaḥ < div

[noun], ablative, singular, masculine

“sky; Svarga; day; div [word]; heaven and earth; day; dawn.”

pṛthivyāḥ < pṛthivī

[noun], ablative, singular, feminine

“Earth; pṛthivī; floor; Earth; earth; pṛthivī [word]; land.”

pary < pari


“from; about; around.”

antarikṣāt < antarikṣa

[noun], ablative, singular, neuter

“sky; atmosphere; air; abhra.”

svarāḍ < svarāj

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“svarāj; Vishnu.”

indro < indraḥ < indra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

dama < dame < dama

[noun], locative, singular, masculine

“dwelling; home.”



“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”

viśvagūrtaḥ < viśva


“all(a); whole; complete; each(a); viśva [word]; completely; wholly.”

viśvagūrtaḥ < gūrtaḥ < gur

[verb noun], nominative, singular

svarir < svariḥ < svari

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

amatro < amatraḥ < amatra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

vavakṣe < vakṣ

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“grow; grow.”

raṇāya < raṇa

[noun], dative, singular, masculine

“battle; fight; pleasure; joy; war; combat.”

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