Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 1.60.3

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

तं नव्य॑सी हृ॒द आ जाय॑मानम॒स्मत्सु॑की॒र्तिर्मधु॑जिह्वमश्याः । यमृ॒त्विजो॑ वृ॒जने॒ मानु॑षास॒: प्रय॑स्वन्त आ॒यवो॒ जीज॑नन्त ॥
तं नव्यसी हृद आ जायमानमस्मत्सुकीर्तिर्मधुजिह्वमश्याः । यमृत्विजो वृजने मानुषासः प्रयस्वन्त आयवो जीजनन्त ॥
taṃ navyasī hṛda ā jāyamānam asmat sukīrtir madhujihvam aśyāḥ | yam ṛtvijo vṛjane mānuṣāsaḥ prayasvanta āyavo jījananta ||

English translation:

“May our newest celebration come before that Agni, who is sweet-tongued, and is to be engendered in the heart; whom men, the descendants of Manu, sacrificing and presenting oblations to him, beget in the time and battle.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Navyasī sukīrtiḥ = newest celebration, as if the hymn were of very recent composition; agni is engendered of air; but, that air is the vital air or breath; agni, therefore, is produced in the heart, or in the interiors of the human body; in the time of battle = in order to make burnt offerings to secure success


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): nodhā gautamaḥ [nodhas gautama];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): agniḥ ;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

तम् । नव्य॑सी । हृ॒दः । आ । जाय॑मानम् । अ॒स्मत् । सु॒ऽकी॒र्तिः । मधु॑ऽजिह्वम् । अ॒श्याः॒ । यम् । ऋ॒त्विजः॑ । वृ॒जने॑ । मानु॑षासः । प्रय॑स्वन्तः । आ॒यवः॑ । जीज॑नन्त ॥
तम् । नव्यसी । हृदः । आ । जायमानम् । अस्मत् । सुकीर्तिः । मधुजिह्वम् । अश्याः । यम् । ऋत्विजः । वृजने । मानुषासः । प्रयस्वन्तः । आयवः । जीजनन्त ॥
tam | navyasī | hṛdaḥ | ā | jāyamānam | asmat | su-kīrtiḥ | madhu-jihvam | aśyāḥ | yam | ṛtvijaḥ | vṛjane | mānuṣāsaḥ | prayasvantaḥ | āyavaḥ | jījananta

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 1.60.3 English analysis of grammar]

taṃ < tam < tad

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

navyasī < navīyas

[noun], nominative, singular, feminine

“new; fresh; up-to-the-minute.”

hṛda < hṛdaḥ < hṛd

[noun], ablative, singular, neuter

“heart; heart; mind; breast; hṛd [word].”



“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”

jāyamānam < jan

[verb noun], accusative, singular

“become; originate; be born; transform; happen; result; grow; beget; produce; create; conceive; separate; cause; give birth; grow; produce; generate; be; become; arise; come on.”

asmat < mad

[noun], ablative, plural

“I; mine.”

sukīrtir < su


“very; well; good; nicely; beautiful; su; early; quite.”

sukīrtir < kīrtiḥ < kīrti

[noun], nominative, singular, feminine

“fame; fame; glory; kīrti [word]; mention.”

madhujihvam < madhu


“sweet; deft.”

madhujihvam < jihvam < jihvā

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“tongue; tongue; jihvā [word]; fire.”

aśyāḥ <

[verb], singular, Aorist optative

“get; reach; enter (a state).”

yam < yad

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

ṛtvijo < ṛtvijaḥ < ṛtvij

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“ṛtvij; ṛtvij [word].”

vṛjane < vṛjana

[noun], locative, singular, neuter

“community; settlement.”

mānuṣāsaḥ < mānuṣa

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine


prayasvanta < prayasvantaḥ < prayasvat

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine


āyavo < āyavaḥ < āyu

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

jījananta <

[verb], plural, Redupl. Aorist (Ind.)

“move over; yield; give way.”

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