Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 1.53.2

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

दु॒रो अश्व॑स्य दु॒र इ॑न्द्र॒ गोर॑सि दु॒रो यव॑स्य॒ वसु॑न इ॒नस्पति॑: । शि॒क्षा॒न॒रः प्र॒दिवो॒ अका॑मकर्शन॒: सखा॒ सखि॑भ्य॒स्तमि॒दं गृ॑णीमसि ॥
दुरो अश्वस्य दुर इन्द्र गोरसि दुरो यवस्य वसुन इनस्पतिः । शिक्षानरः प्रदिवो अकामकर्शनः सखा सखिभ्यस्तमिदं गृणीमसि ॥
duro aśvasya dura indra gor asi duro yavasya vasuna inas patiḥ | śikṣānaraḥ pradivo akāmakarśanaḥ sakhā sakhibhyas tam idaṃ gṛṇīmasi ||

English translation:

“You, Indra, are the giver of horses, of cattle, or barley, the master and protector of wealth, the foremost in liberality, (the being) of many days; you disappoint not desires (addressed to you); you are a friend to our friend; such an Indra we praise.”

Details:

Ṛṣi (sage/seer): savya āṅgirasaḥ [savya āṅgirasa];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): bhurigjagatī ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

दु॒रः । अश्व॑स्य । दु॒रः । इ॒न्द्र॒ । गोः । अ॒सि॒ । दु॒रः । यव॑स्य । वसु॑नः । इ॒नः । पतिः॑ । शि॒क्षा॒ऽन॒रः । प्र॒ऽदिवः॑ । अका॑मऽकर्शनः । सखा॑ । सखि॑ऽभ्यः । तम् । इ॒दम् । गृ॒णी॒म॒सि॒ ॥
दुरः । अश्वस्य । दुरः । इन्द्र । गोः । असि । दुरः । यवस्य । वसुनः । इनः । पतिः । शिक्षानरः । प्रदिवः । अकामकर्शनः । सखा । सखिभ्यः । तम् । इदम् । गृणीमसि ॥
duraḥ | aśvasya | duraḥ | indra | goḥ | asi | duraḥ | yavasya | vasunaḥ | inaḥ | patiḥ | śikṣānaraḥ | pra-divaḥ | akāma-karśanaḥ | sakhā | sakhi-bhyaḥ | tam | idam | gṛṇīmasi

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 1.53.2 English analysis of grammar]

duro < duraḥ < dura

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

aśvasya < aśva

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“horse; aśva [word]; Aśva; stallion.”

dura < duraḥ < dura

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

indra

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

gor < goḥ < go

[noun], genitive, singular, feminine

“cow; cattle; go [word]; Earth; bull; floor; milk; beam; sunbeam; leather; hide; horn; language; bowstring; earth; ox; Svarga.”

asi < as

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”

duro < duraḥ < dura

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

yavasya < yava

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“barley; yava; barleycorn; yava [word]; yava; yavakṣāra; grain.”

vasuna < vasunaḥ < vasu

[noun], genitive, singular, neuter

“wealth; property; gold; vasu [word]; ruby; treasure; jewel.”

inas < ina

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“mighty; powerful.”

patiḥ < pati

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“husband; overlord; king; deity; īśvara; ruler; pati [word]; commanding officer; leader; owner; mayor; lord.”

śikṣānaraḥ < śikṣā

[noun], feminine

“teaching; study; lesson; phonetics; learning; Śikṣā; art.”

śikṣānaraḥ < naraḥ < nara

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“man; man; Nara; person; people; Nara; Puruṣa; nara [word]; servant; hero.”

pradivo < pradivaḥ < pradiv

[noun], ablative, singular, masculine

“age-old; long.”

akāmakarśanaḥ < a

[adverb]

“not; akāra; a [taddhita]; a [word]; a; a.”

akāmakarśanaḥ < kāma

[noun], masculine

“wish; desire; sexual love; sexual desire; desire; Kama; sensuality; love; purpose; sexual arousal; pleasure; enjoyment; licentiousness; kāma [word]; sexual intercourse; thorn apple; wish.”

akāmakarśanaḥ < karśanaḥ < karśana

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“distressing; disappointing.”

sakhā < sakhi

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“friend; companion; sakhi [word].”

sakhibhyas < sakhibhyaḥ < sakhi

[noun], dative, plural, masculine

“friend; companion; sakhi [word].”

tam < tad

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

idaṃ < idam

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

gṛṇīmasi < gṛ

[verb], plural, Present optative

“praise.”

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