Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 1.38.9

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

दिवा॑ चि॒त्तम॑: कृण्वन्ति प॒र्जन्ये॑नोदवा॒हेन॑ । यत्पृ॑थि॒वीं व्यु॒न्दन्ति॑ ॥
दिवा चित्तमः कृण्वन्ति पर्जन्येनोदवाहेन । यत्पृथिवीं व्युन्दन्ति ॥
divā cit tamaḥ kṛṇvanti parjanyenodavāhena | yat pṛthivīṃ vyundanti ||

English translation:

“They spread darkness over the day by a water-bearing cloud, and thence inundate the earth.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): kaṇvo ghauraḥ [kaṇva ghaura];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): marūtaḥ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛdgāyatrī ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

दिवा॑ । चि॒त् । तमः॑ । कृ॒ण्व॒न्ति॒ । प॒र्जन्ये॑न । उ॒द॒ऽवा॒हेन॑ । यत् । पृ॒थि॒वीम् । वि॒ऽउ॒न्दन्ति॑ ॥
दिवा । चित् । तमः । कृण्वन्ति । पर्जन्येन । उदवाहेन । यत् । पृथिवीम् । विउन्दन्ति ॥
divā | cit | tamaḥ | kṛṇvanti | parjanyena | uda-vāhena | yat | pṛthivīm | vi-undanti

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 1.38.9 English analysis of grammar]



“by day; divā [indecl.].”



“even; indeed.”

tamaḥ < tamas

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“dark; darkness; Tamas; tamas [word]; faint; tamas; gloom; ignorance.”

kṛṇvanti < kṛ

[verb], plural, Present indikative

“make; perform; cause; produce; shape; construct; do; put; fill into; use; fuel; transform; bore; act; write; create; prepare; administer; dig; prepare; treat; take effect; add; trace; put on; process; treat; heed; hire; act; produce; assume; eat; ignite; chop; treat; obey; manufacture; appoint; evacuate; choose; understand; insert; happen; envelop; weigh; observe; practice; lend; bring; duplicate; plant; kṛ; concentrate; mix; knot; join; take; provide; utter; compose.”

parjanyenodavāhena < parjanyena < parjanya

[noun], instrumental, singular, masculine

“cloud; Parjanya; Indra; nimbus.”

parjanyenodavāhena < uda

[noun], neuter


parjanyenodavāhena < vāhena < vāha

[noun], instrumental, singular, masculine

“transporting; flowing; removing.”



“once [when]; because; that; if; how.”

pṛthivīṃ < pṛthivīm < pṛthivī

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

“Earth; pṛthivī; floor; Earth; earth; pṛthivī [word]; land.”

vyundanti < vyund < √und

[verb], plural, Present indikative

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