Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 1.34.8

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

त्रिर॑श्विना॒ सिन्धु॑भिः स॒प्तमा॑तृभि॒स्त्रय॑ आहा॒वास्त्रे॒धा ह॒विष्कृ॒तम् । ति॒स्रः पृ॑थि॒वीरु॒परि॑ प्र॒वा दि॒वो नाकं॑ रक्षेथे॒ द्युभि॑र॒क्तुभि॑र्हि॒तम् ॥
त्रिरश्विना सिन्धुभिः सप्तमातृभिस्त्रय आहावास्त्रेधा हविष्कृतम् । तिस्रः पृथिवीरुपरि प्रवा दिवो नाकं रक्षेथे द्युभिरक्तुभिर्हितम् ॥
trir aśvinā sindhubhiḥ saptamātṛbhis traya āhāvās tredhā haviṣ kṛtam | tisraḥ pṛthivīr upari pravā divo nākaṃ rakṣethe dyubhir aktubhir hitam ||

English translation:

“Come, Aśvins, thrice with the seven mother-sttreams; the three rivers are ready; the triple oblation is prepared; rising above the three worlds, you defend the sun in the sky, who is established for both night and day.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Three rivers: three sorts of jars or pitchers used to contain and pour out Soma


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): hiraṇyastūpa āṅgirasaḥ [hiraṇyastūpa āṅgirasa];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): aśvinau ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛjjagatī ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

त्रिः । आ॒श्वि॒ना॒ । सिन्धु॑ऽभिः । स॒प्तमा॑तृऽभिः । त्रयः॑ । आ॒ऽहा॒वाः । त्रे॒धा । ह॒विः । कृ॒तम् । ति॒स्रः । पृ॒थि॒वीः । उ॒परि॑ । प्र॒वा । दि॒वः । नाक॑म् । र॒क्षे॒थे॒ इति॑ । द्युऽभिः॑ । अ॒क्तुऽभिः॑ । हि॒तम् ॥
त्रिः । आश्विना । सिन्धुभिः । सप्तमातृभिः । त्रयः । आहावाः । त्रेधा । हविः । कृतम् । तिस्रः । पृथिवीः । उपरि । प्रवा । दिवः । नाकम् । रक्षेथे इति । द्युभिः । अक्तुभिः । हितम् ॥
triḥ | āśvinā | sindhu-bhiḥ | saptamātṛ-bhiḥ | trayaḥ | āhāvāḥ | tredhā | haviḥ | kṛtam | tisraḥ | pṛthivīḥ | upari | pravā | divaḥ | nākam | rakṣetheiti | dyu-bhiḥ | aktu-bhiḥ | hitam

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 1.34.8 English analysis of grammar]

trir < tris


“thrice; tris [word].”

aśvinā < aśvin

[noun], vocative, dual, masculine

“Asvins; two.”

sindhubhiḥ < sindhu

[noun], instrumental, plural, masculine

“river; Indus; sindhu [word].”

saptamātṛbhis < sapta < saptan


“seven; seventh.”

saptamātṛbhis < mātṛbhiḥ < mātṛ

[noun], instrumental, plural, masculine

“mother; mātṛkā; mātṛ [word]; parent; Salvinia cucullata Roxb.; Citrullus colocynthis Schrad.; cow.”

traya < trayaḥ < tri

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“three; tri/tisṛ [word].”

āhāvās < āhāvāḥ < āhāva

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“bucket; āhāva [word]; manger.”




haviṣ < havis

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“Havya; offering; ghee; havis [word].”

kṛtam < kṛ

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“make; perform; cause; produce; shape; construct; do; put; fill into; use; fuel; transform; bore; act; write; create; prepare; administer; dig; prepare; treat; take effect; add; trace; put on; process; treat; heed; hire; act; produce; assume; eat; ignite; chop; treat; obey; manufacture; appoint; evacuate; choose; understand; insert; happen; envelop; weigh; observe; practice; lend; bring; duplicate; plant; kṛ; concentrate; mix; knot; join; take; provide; utter; compose.”

tisraḥ < tri

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“three; tri/tisṛ [word].”

pṛthivīr < pṛthivīḥ < pṛthivī

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“Earth; pṛthivī; floor; Earth; earth; pṛthivī [word]; land.”



“above; up; additionally; upari [word]; subsequently.”

pravā < prava

[noun], nominative, dual, masculine


divo < divaḥ < div

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“sky; Svarga; day; div [word]; heaven and earth; day; dawn.”

nākaṃ < nākam < nāka

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“sky; celestial sphere; Svarga; nāka [word].”

rakṣethe < rakṣ

[verb], dual, Present indikative

“protect; guard; keep; stow; govern; guard; spare; accumulate.”

dyubhir < dyubhiḥ < div

[noun], instrumental, plural, masculine

“sky; Svarga; day; div [word]; heaven and earth; day; dawn.”

aktubhir < aktubhiḥ < aktu

[noun], instrumental, plural, masculine

“night; dark; beam.”

hitam < dhā

[verb noun], accusative, singular

“put; give; cause; get; hold; make; provide; lend; wear; install; have; enter (a state); supply; hold; take; show.”

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