Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 1.32.12

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अश्व्यो॒ वारो॑ अभव॒स्तदि॑न्द्र सृ॒के यत्त्वा॑ प्र॒त्यह॑न्दे॒व एक॑: । अज॑यो॒ गा अज॑यः शूर॒ सोम॒मवा॑सृज॒: सर्त॑वे स॒प्त सिन्धू॑न् ॥
अश्व्यो वारो अभवस्तदिन्द्र सृके यत्त्वा प्रत्यहन्देव एकः । अजयो गा अजयः शूर सोममवासृजः सर्तवे सप्त सिन्धून् ॥
aśvyo vāro abhavas tad indra sṛke yat tvā pratyahan deva ekaḥ | ajayo gā ajayaḥ śūra somam avāsṛjaḥ sartave sapta sindhūn ||

English translation:

“When the single resplendent Vṛtra returned the blow (which had been inflicted), Indra, by your thunderbolt, you became (furious), like a horse's tail. You have rescued the kine; you have won, Hero, the Soma juice; you have let loose the seven rivers to flow.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Like a horse's tail, as a horse lashes his tail to get rid of the flies; seven rivers: gaṅgā, yamunā, sarasvatī, śatudrī, paruṣṇī (irāvatī), asikni, marudvṛdhā, vitastā, ārjīkīya (vipāsā) and suṣomā (sindhu)


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): hiraṇyastūpa āṅgirasaḥ [hiraṇyastūpa āṅgirasa];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अश्व्यः॑ । वारः॑ । अ॒भ॒वः॒ । तत् । इ॒न्द्र॒ । सृ॒के । यत् । त्वा॒ । प्र॒ति॒ऽअह॑न् । दे॒वः । एकः॑ । अज॑यः । गाः । अज॑यः । शू॒र॒ । सोम॑म् । अव॑ । अ॒सृ॒जः॒ । सर्त॑वे । स॒प्त । सिन्धू॑न् ॥
अश्व्यः । वारः । अभवः । तत् । इन्द्र । सृके । यत् । त्वा । प्रतिअहन् । देवः । एकः । अजयः । गाः । अजयः । शूर । सोमम् । अव । असृजः । सर्तवे । सप्त । सिन्धून् ॥
aśvyaḥ | vāraḥ | abhavaḥ | tat | indra | sṛke | yat | tvā | prati-ahan | devaḥ | ekaḥ | ajayaḥ | gāḥ | ajayaḥ | śūra | somam | ava | asṛjaḥ | sartave | sapta | sindhūn

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 1.32.12 English analysis of grammar]

aśvyo < aśvyaḥ < aśvya

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine


vāro < vāraḥ < vāra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“hair; tail.”

abhavas < abhavaḥ < bhū

[verb], singular, Imperfect

“become; be; originate; transform; happen; result; exist; be born; be; be; come to life; grow; elapse; come to mind; thrive; become; impend; show; conceive; understand; stand; constitute; serve; apply; behave.”

tad < tat < tad

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”


[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

sṛke < sṛka

[noun], locative, singular, masculine



“once [when]; because; that; if; how.”

tvā < tvad

[noun], accusative, singular


pratyahan < pratihan < √han

[verb], singular, Imperfect

“suppress; cure; obstruct; obstruct; ward off; jam; neutralize.”

deva < devaḥ < deva

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

ekaḥ < eka

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“one; single(a); alone(p); some(a); single(a); eka [word]; alone(p); excellent; each(a); some(a); one; same; alone(p); some(a); consistent; any(a); undifferentiated; disjunct.”

ajayo < ajayaḥ < ji

[verb], singular, Imperfect

“overcome; cure; win; conquer; control; win; succeed; remove; beat; govern; surpass; suppress.”

< gāḥ < go

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“cow; cattle; go [word]; Earth; bull; floor; milk; beam; sunbeam; leather; hide; horn; language; bowstring; earth; ox; Svarga.”

ajayaḥ < ji

[verb], singular, Imperfect

“overcome; cure; win; conquer; control; win; succeed; remove; beat; govern; surpass; suppress.”


[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“hero; cock; śūra; Śūra; Vatica robusta; Plumbago zeylanica; warrior; hero; attacker; lentil; wild boar; lion; dog.”

somam < soma

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“Soma; moon; soma [word]; Candra.”

avāsṛjaḥ < avasṛj < √sṛj

[verb], singular, Imperfect

“free; shoot; ejaculate.”

sartave < sṛ

[verb noun]

“sṛ; liquefy; run; spread; stretch out.”

sapta < saptan

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“seven; seventh.”

sindhūn < sindhu

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“river; Indus; sindhu [word].”

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