by Hermann Oldenberg | 1886 | 27,910 words

The Grihya-sutra of Paraskara, which belongs to the White Yajurveda and forms an appendix to Katyayana's Shrauta-sutra, has been edited, with a German translation. Alternative titles: Pāraskara-gṛhya-sūtra (पारस्कर-गृह्य-सूत्र), Grhya, Pāraskaragṛhyasūtra (पारस्करगृह्यसूत्र), Paraskaragrihyasutra, Paraskaragrhyasutra....

Adhyāya III, Kaṇḍikā 14

1. Now the mounting of a chariot (is declared).

2. After he has given the order, 'Put the horses to it,' and it has been announced, 'They are,' he goes to (the chariot, saying), 'This is the Virāj,' and touches the two wheels,

3. The right (wheel) with (the words), 'The Rathantara art thou'—

4. The left with (the words), 'The Bṛhat art thou'—

5. The pole with (the words), 'The Vāmadevya art thou.'

6[1]. He touches the interior of the chariot with his hand (saying), 'The two Aṅkas, the two Nyaṅkas which are on both sides of the chariot, which move forward with the rushing wind, the far-darting one with keen senses, the winged one, may these fires, the promoters, promote us.'

7[2]. With (the words), 'Adoration to Māṇicara,' he drives on the beast on the right side.

8. (If going in his chariot) toward (images of) gods, let him descend (from the chariot) before he has reached them; if toward Brāhmaṇas, just before (reaching them); if toward cows, when amid them; if toward fathers, when he has reached them.

9. A woman or a Vedic student shall not be charioteers.

10. Having driven a moment beyond (the point to which he intends to go) he should murmur, 'Here is rest, rest here' (Vāj. Saṃh. VIII, 51).

11[3]. Some add (the words), 'Here shall be no rest.'

12. If the chariot is weak, he should murmur, after he has mounted it, 'May this your chariot, O Aśvins, suffer no damage on bad ways or by being overthrown.'

13[4]. If the horses run away with the chariot, he should touch the post (?) or the earth and should murmur, 'May this your chariot, O Aśvins, suffer no damage on bad ways or by being overthrown.'

14. Thus he will suffer no harm and no damage.

15[5]. When he has finished his way, and has unyoked the horses, let him have grass and water given to them. 'For thus satisfaction is given to the beast that draws (the cart)'—says the Śruti.

Footnotes and references:


14, 6. The meaning of aṅkau and nyaṅkau cannot be determined, as far as I can see. The commentators explain the words as the two wheels and the two sides of the chariot, or as the two right wheels and the two left wheels of a four-wheeled chariot. Professor Zimmer (Altindisches Leben, pp. 251 seq.) compares aṅka with ἄντυξ, and says, 'Mit aṅkau (resp. aṅkū) ware daher die obere Einfassung des Wagenkastens (kośa, vandhura) bezeichnet, mit nyaṅkau (resp. nyaṅkū) ein zu grösserer Befestigung etwas weiter unten (ni) herumlaufender Stab.' To me it seems that aṅkau and nyaṅkau are to be understood both as designations of certain parts of the chariot and as names of different forms of Agni dwelling in the chariot.—Comp. Taittirīya Saṃhitā I, 7, 7, 2; Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa I, 7, 5.


The name of the demon Māṇicara occurs, as far as I know, only here.


If the reading of the text is correct, the meaning would seem to be: We will rest here for a while, but then we will go further.


I cannot say what 'the post' (stambha) here means; it may be apart of the chariot. Jayarāma has dhvajastambha, i.e. the staff of a flag, which we are to suppose was carried on the chariot. This may be the right explanation.


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa I, 8, 2, 9.

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