by Hermann Oldenberg | 1886 | 27,910 words

The Grihya-sutra of Paraskara, which belongs to the White Yajurveda and forms an appendix to Katyayana's Shrauta-sutra, has been edited, with a German translation. Alternative titles: Pāraskara-gṛhya-sūtra (पारस्कर-गृह्य-सूत्र), Grhya, Pāraskaragṛhyasūtra (पारस्करगृह्यसूत्र), Paraskaragrihyasutra, Paraskaragrhyasutra....

Adhyāya II, Kaṇḍikā 5

1. Here (follows the student's) going the rounds for alms.

2[1]. A Brāhmaṇa should beg, addressing (the woman from whom he begs alms) with the word 'Lady' put at the beginning (of his request),

3. A Rājanya, with the word 'Lady' inserted in the middle,

4. A Vaiśya, with the word 'Lady' put at the end.

5[2]. (He should beg) from three women who will not refuse;

6. From six, twelve, or an indefinite number.

7. From his own mother first, according to some (teachers).

8[3]. Having announced the alms received to his teacher, he should stand, keeping silence, through the rest of the day, according to some.

9[4]. Having fetched fire-wood out of the forest without damaging (trees), he should put them on that fire as above, and should abandon his silence.

10. He should sleep on the ground and eat no pungent or saline food.

11. Wearing the staff, worshipping the fire, being obedient to his Guru, going the rounds for alms—(these are the standing duties of students).

12[5]. He should avoid honey or flesh, bathing (for pleasure), sitting on high seats, going to women, falsehood, and taking what is not given to him.

13[6]. Let him live forty-eight years as a student for the (four) Vedas,

14. Or twelve years for each Veda,

15. Or until he has learnt it.

16. The garment (of a student) should be made of hemp, flax, or wool (accordingly as he is a Brāhmaṇa, a Kṣatriya, or a Vaiśya).

17. The upper garment of a Brāhmaṇa should be an antelope-skin,

18. That of a Rājanya the skin of a spotted deer,

19. That of a Vaiśya a goat's or cow's skin.

20. Or if (the prescribed sort of garment) is not to be had, a cow's hide (should be worn) by all, because to that belongs the first place (among all kinds of garments).

21. The girdle of a Brāhmaṇa should be of Muñja grass,

22. That of a Kṣatriya should be a bowstring,

23. That of a Vaiśya, made of Mūrvā (i.e. Sanseveria Roxburghiana).

24[7]. If there is no Muñja (or the other articles prescribed in §§ 22, 23, the girdles should be made) of Kuśa grass, of the plant Aśmantaka, or of Balbaja grass (respectively).

25. The staff of a Brāhmaṇa is of Palāśa wood,

26. That of a Rājanya of Bilva wood,

27. That of a Vaiśya of Udumbara wood.

28. Or all (sorts of staffs may be used) by all.

29. If the teacher calls him, he shall rise and then answer..

30. If (the teacher calls him) while he is lying down, (he should answer) sitting; if sitting, standing; if standing, walking up (to the teacher); if walking up, running up.

31. If he behaves thus, his fame when he has become a Snātaka (i.e. when he has taken the bath at the end of his studentship) will be (such that people will say of him), 'To-day he stays there; to-day he stays there.'

32[8]. There are three (kinds of) Snātakas: a Vidyā-snātaka (i.e. a Snātaka by knowledge), a Vrata-snātaka (i.e. a Snātaka by the completion of his vows), and a Vidyā-vrata-snātaka (i.e. a Snātaka both by knowledge and by the completion of his vows).

33. He who performs the Samāvartana ceremony, after having finished the study of the Veda, but before the time of his vows has expired, is a Vidyā-snātaka.

34. He who performs the Samāvartana, after his vows have expired, but before he has finished the study of the Veda, is a Vrata-snātaka.

35. He who performs the Samāvartana, after having finished both, is a Vidyā-vrata-snātaka.

36[9]. Until the sixteenth year the time (for being initiated) has not passed for a Brāhmaṇa,

37. Until the twenty-second for a Rājanya,

38. Until the twenty-fourth for a Vaiśya.

39. After that (time has passed), they become patitasāvitrīka (or persons who have lost the right of learning the Sāvitrī).

40. No one should initiate such men, nor teach them, nor perform sacrifices for them, nor have intercourse with them.

41[10]. After the time has passed, (they should do) as has been prescribed.

42[11]. A person whose ancestors through three generations have been patitasāvitrīkas, is excluded from the sacrament (of initiation) and from being taught the Veda.

43[12]. Of such persons those who desire to receive the sacrament, may perform the sacrifice of Vrātyastoma and then study the Veda, if they like. For (of persons who have done that) it is said, 'Intercourse with them is permitted.'

Footnotes and references:


5, 2-4. Comp. Āpastamba I, 3, 28 seqq. (S.B.E., II, p. 12); Manu II, 49, &c. The Brāhmaṇa says, 'Lady, give alms;' the Kṣatriya, 'Give, lady, alms;' the Vaiśya, 'Give alms, lady.'


Āśvalāyana-Gṛhya I, 22, 7.


Āśvalāyana l.l. §§ 10, 11.


The meaning is, he should not break off branches, but only gather such as have fallen off. The words 'as above' refer to chap. 4.


Gautama II, 13; Āpastamba I, 2, 23. 28-30. 21. 26.


Comp. Āpastamba I, 2, 12 seqq.; Āśvalāyana I, 22, 3.


Manu II, 43.


Comp. Āpastamba I, 30, 1-3; Manu IV, 31. The term of the vows extends through forty-eight (or thirty-six, &c.) p. 311 years; see above, Sūtras 13 and 14, and below, chap. 6, 2. 3. The Samāvartana is the returning home of the student at the end of his studentship.


Āśvalāyana-Gṛhya I, 19, 5 seqq. &c.


The general rule here alluded to is, according to the commentators, that given by Kātyāyana, Śrauta-sūtra XXV, 1, 12. 13. There it is stated which expiatory oblations have to precede, when a rite that has not been performed, or that has been incorrectly performed, is to be performed for good.


Those who have not been initiated in due time, may act as p. 312 stated in Sūtra 41. But if the omission has been perpetuated through three generations, the descendant of such persons is subject to the rules stated in Sūtras 42 and 43.


Kātyāyana, after having given the rules on the Vrātyastoma sacrifice (see Weber, Indische Literaturgeschichte, 2nd edition, pp. 73 seq.), says: 'Intercourse with them (who have performed that sacrifice) is permitted' (Śraut. XXII, 4, 28).

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