Padarthadharmasamgraha and Nyayakandali

by Ganganatha Jha | 1915 | 250,428 words

The English translation of the Padarthadharmasamgraha of Prashastapada including the commentary called the Nyayakandali of Shridhara. Although the Padartha-dharma-sangraha is officially a commentary (bhashya) on the Vaisheshika-Sutra by Kanada, it is presented as an independent work on Vaisesika philosophy: It reorders and combines the original Sut...

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Text 158:

न चासौ सम्योगः सं बन्धिनाम् अयुतसिद्धत्वात् अन्यतरकर्मादिनिमित्तासम्भवात् विभागान्तत्वादर्शनाद् अधिकरणाधिकर्तव्ययोरेव भावाद् ॥ १५८ ॥

na cāsau samyogaḥ saṃ bandhinām ayutasiddhatvāt anyatarakarmādinimittāsambhavāt vibhāgāntatvādarśanād adhikaraṇādhikartavyayoreva bhāvād || 158 ||

Text (158): Inherence is not mere conjunction; (1) because the members of this relationship are inseparably connected; (2) because this relationship is not caused by the action of any of the members related; (3) because it is not found to end with the disjunction of the members; and (4) because it is found subsisting only between the container and the contained.

Commentary: The Nyāyakandalī of Śrīdhara.

(English rendering of Śrīdhara’s commentary called Nyāyakandalī or Nyāyakaṇḍalī from the 10th century)

The author proceeds to show that Inherence is not the same as Conjunction. The relationship between the yarns and the Cloth is not one of Conjunction. In proof of this, the following four reasons are given:—

(1) Conjunction occurs between objects that, prior to the conjunction, have a separate existence; whereas Inherence subsists between objects that have no separate existence. (2) Conjunction is brought about by the action of one or both of the members related, whereas in the case of Inherence we do not find any such cause; and the only cause for this relationship lies in the productive potency of the cause bringing the substances into existence. (3) Conjunction ceases as soon as there is a disjunction of the members related; whereas Inherence is indestructible. (4) Conjunction occurs between two substances that have independent existence; for instance, the various fingers of the hand come into mutual contact when the hand is held up; whereas Inherence subsists only in such substances as stand to each other in the relation of the container and the contained.

For these reasons, Inherence cannot be regarded as the same as Conjunction; it is a distinct relationship.

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