Mundaka Upanishad with Shankara’s Commentary

by S. Sitarama Sastri | 1905 | 19,662 words

The Mundaka Upanishad is a collection of philosophical poems used to teach meditation and spiritual knowledge regarding the true nature of Brahma and the Self (Atman). It is composed of the three main parts (mundakas): 1) The first of three parts expounds the science of higher and lower knowledge. 2) The second part describes the true nature of t...

Verse 2.1.10

पुरुष एवेदं विश्वं कर्म तपो ब्रह्म परामृतम् ।
एतद्यो वेद निहितं गुहायां सोऽविद्याग्रन्थिं विकिरतीह सोम्य ॥ १० ॥

puruṣa evedaṃ viśvaṃ karma tapo brahma parāmṛtam |
etadyo veda nihitaṃ guhāyāṃ so'vidyāgranthiṃ vikiratīha somya || 10 ||

10. The purusha alone is all this universe—Karma and Tapas. All this is Brahman, the highest and the immortal who knows this as seated in the cavity of the heart, unties the knot of ignorance even here, Oh good looking youth! (10)


Shankara’s Commentary:

Com.—Thus, out of purusha, all this is born; therefore, as the Sruti says “The name is mere speech, a modification and a falsehood and the purusha alone is true.” Therefore all this is only purusha. The universe has no separate existence apart from purusha. Hence to the question propounded “O Bhagavan, by knowing whom, all this becomes known,” the answer has been given, i.e., when this purusha, the supreme Atman, the first cause is known, it becomes clear that all this universe is purusha and nothing else exists except him. What then is this “all,” it is thus explained. Karma is of the nature of Agnihotra and the rest. Tapas, knowledge and the fruit due to it. By ‘all’ this much is meant. And all this is evolved out of Brahman. Therefore everything is Brahman. He who knows that lie himself is this Brahman the highest and the immortal placed in the hearts of all living beings, destroys the dense tendencies of ignorance. Iha, even while living and not merely after death. Soumya, good looking.



|| इति मुण्डकोपनिषदि द्वितीयमुण्डके प्रथमः खण्डः ||

|| iti muṇḍakopaniṣadi dvitīyamuṇḍake prathamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ||

Here ends the commentary
on the first part of the
Second Mundaka.


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