The Mundaka Upanishad with Shankara’s Commentary

1905 | 20,528 words

The Mundaka Upanishad is a collection of philosophical poems used to teach meditation and spiritual knowledge regarding the true nature of Brahma and the Self (Atman). It is composed of the three main parts (mundakas): 1) The first of three parts expounds the science of higher and lower knowledge. 2) The second part describes the true nature of t...

Verse 2.1.7

तस्माच्च देवा बहुधा संप्रसूताः साध्या मनुष्याः पशवो वयांसि ।
प्राणापानौ व्रीहियवौ तपश्च श्रद्ध सत्यं ब्रह्मचर्यं विधिश्च ॥ ७ ॥

tasmācca devā bahudhā saṃprasūtāḥ sādhyā manuṣyāḥ paśavo vayāṃsi |
prāṇāpānau vrīhiyavau tapaśca śraddha satyaṃ brahmacaryaṃ vidhiśca || 7 ||

7. From him also the devas are variously born, the sadhyas, the men, the cattle, the bird, the prana and the apana, the corn and yava, tapas, devotion, truth Brahmacharya and injunction.

 

Shankara’s Commentary:

Com.Tasmat, “from him also, from the purusha. ‘Variously,’ in various groups such as vasus, etc. Samprasutah, well born. Sadhyas, a species of Devas. Men those that are entitled to perforin karma; cattle, both of the village and the forest. Vayamsi, birds. The food of men, etc., The Prana and the Apana; corn and yava, to be used for making havis (oblations). Tapas, both as an indispensable adjunct to karma whose efficacy lies in the purification of the performer and as an independent means of attaining the fruits of karma. Devotion, that state of mind which precedes the mental calm and a belief in a future state necessary to the accomplishment of all human ends. Similarly, truth, i.e., avoiding falsehood and speaking out what has really happened, without harm to others. Brahmacharyam, absence of sexual intercourse. Injunction, the statement of what ought to be done.

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