Mundaka Upanishad (Madhva commentary)

by Srisa Chandra Vasu | 1909 | 25,279 words | ISBN-13: 9789332869165

The English translation of the Mundaka Upanishad (Mundakopanishad) including the commentary of Madhva called the Bhasya. It is associated with the Atharva Veda and contains three parts having two section each. The text discusses the science of knowledge, the knowledge of Brahman, the self and the soul. The Mundaka Upanishad is also known as: Muṇḍa...

Chapter 5 - Third Mundaka, First Khanda

Mantra 3.1.1.

1. Two birds of handsome plumage, inseparable friends, nestle on the same tree. The one of them eats the fruit, as if it was sweet, the other, without eating, illumines all around.—44.

Madhva’s commentary called the Bhāṣya:

The Jīva-bird eats the fruit as if it was sweet: and not that it eats the sweet fruits only and rejects the bitter ones. It has to eat both the sweet and the bitter fruit. As says a text (Rig Veda I. 164. 22) “He who is the foremost, for him alone is the sweet fruit and not for- the mortal Jīva who does not know the Father.” This shows that the ignorant do not taste the sweet fruit.

The Lord does not eat that fruit which is destined for the Jīva and not that He alone eats the sweet fruit. So also we read in the Tattvasāra: “The Lord Viṣṇu the unchangeable is said to be the eater as well as the non-eater. He is the eater in the sense that He is above the law of necessity, His enjoyment is not conditioned by karma. He is the non-eater because He never suffers any sorrow.”

Note.—In the last Khaṇḍa it was said that the Supreme moves in the hearts of all and becomes manifold. Lest one should mistake that Brahman is therefore the Jīva and there is no difference between the two, the present khaṇḍa declares their difference.

Having taught the Three Truths—The world or Yajña, the soul or Jīva and the Īśvara or God—the present Khaṇḍa declares the relationship in which the Jīva stands to Brahman. The God and the soul both dwell together in invariable union in the same body: but while God is Pure Consciousness illumining all, the Jīva is the experiencer.

The Lord also eats only the essence of the good works. The truly sweet fruit is for the Lord alone and for those who know the Lord; but for the ignorant who do not know the Father, there is no sweet fruit.

Mantra 3.1.2.

2. Though, seated on one and the same tree, the Jīva bewildered by the Divine Power sees not the Lord and so grieves. But when he sees the eternally worshipped Lord and his glory, as separate from himself, then he becomes free from grief (and fit for Mukti).—45.

[Note.—Nimagnaḥ, immersed, seated, perched, but having the idea of “I” and “mine,” and hence “absorbed” in the tree.]

[Note.—Anīśayā, through want of power, impotence. She who has no other Lord (Īśa) is called Anīśā. That is she who is independent—the Divine Māyā, Power or Wisdom (Bhagavat Matiḥ). By Her—by that Anīśa, by the Divine Power.]

Madhva’s commentary called the Bhāṣya:

The Will or Wisdom of Hari is called Anīśā because there is no Lord over Her. His Will is not dominated by anybody else’s will. His is the true free will. The Jīva is deluded by this Anīśā, this Will or Power of the Lord. The Jīva gets the Mukti when he knows the Lord as separate from him. As we read in the Brahman Sara: “The Lord is separate from the Jīva and as He is independent, He is called the best of all Beings.”

Note.—The first half of this verse describes the cause of bondage, namely, the soul being immersed in bodily enjoyment and the Delusion of the mine and thine. The next half shows the method of emancipation—seeing the Lord the ever-content and the adorable. Discontentment is the cause of bondage, contentment the cause of Mukti.

Mantra 3.1.3.

3. When the Jīva sees the golden coloured Creator and Lord, as the Person from whom Brahmā comes out, then the wise, shaking off virtue and vice and becoming free from Avidyā, attains the highest similarity.—46.

[Note.—Pāpe, vice, evil. The good and evil. All puṇya is not destroyed by Jñāna, but only that puṇya which has not begun to manifest its fruit. The non-prārabdha. The puṇya is of two sorts: Kāmya and non-Kāmya. The kāmya-puṇya (good deeds done with a particular desire) is of two sorts—that which has begun to manifest its fruit (prārabdha) and non-prārabdha. The latter only is destroyed.]

Madhva’s commentary called the Bhāṣya:

He shakes off that good deed only, the fruit of which he does not desire to enjoy.

Note.—This shows that the Lord has a visible form and a color. See also the Vedānta Sūtra I, 2, 23. The divine qualities were in the Jīva from before—so it was similar with the Lord from eternity. The similarity which the Jīva attains on Mukti consists in the unfoldment of Divine Powers which were latent before in the soul. See Vedānta Sūtra II, 3, 31.

Mantra 3.1.4.

4. For the Lord shines forth in all beings and senses, knowing this the wise ceases from useless controversy. He contemplates on the Lord, enjoys the bliss of His company, (and when out of trance) is active in performing works of the Lord—such a Jīvan-mukta is also the teacher of those who are seekers of the knowledge of Brahman.—47.

[Note.—Ativādī, much-talker; conceited by the idea “I am the worker, the agent.” One who makes a supreme and final declaration. Dogmatic (?).]

[Note.—Krīdaḥ, sporting, reveling. He who sports with the Self is called Ātmakrīḍa. Or he who constantly meditates on the Krīḍa or sport of the Lord—how the Ātmā creates and destroys the world. This is the samprajñātaḥ meditation.]

[Note.—Ātmaratiḥ, delighting in the Self. Or who has got the pleasure (rati [ratiḥ]) of seeing the Ātman (the Self) Svarūpasukha. This describes Asamprajñāta Samādhi.]

[Note.—Kriyāvān, performing works, viz, constantly meditating on the Lord, carrying out the will of the Lord, that being his sole work. Performing only Prārabdha acts, during the time when he is not in Asamprajñāta-Samadhi.]

[Note.—Brahmavidām, among the knowers of Brahman. Those who are inferior to him in the knowledge of Brahman.]

[Note.—Variṣṭhaḥ, the best, the teacher. That is during the time when he is not in Asamprajñāta-Samādhi, he teaches others as well as is active in the performance of good deeds.]

Madhva’s commentary called the Bhāṣya:

The true Jñānin, called here vidvān, is kriyāvān, performs all duties and works off his prārabdha. This Lord Hari manifests or shines forth as Prāṇa, the Prime worker, in all the activities of the Devas like Indra &c, who preside over the various organs of the human body. The Jñānin therefore, realises that all his activities are primarily of the Lord, and he then says, “I am not an independent worker, but the real agent is Hari.” When he realises this, he does not become an ati-vādi—does no longer say “I am the agent.” On the contrary, he now begins to see in the functioning of all his senses and organs, the play of the Lord, the Lilā [Līlā?] of Hari, and thus he becomes Ātmakrīḍa, one who is absorbed in the contemplation of the graceful sports of the Lord of all sports. In his own body and in the universe, he sees the sport of the Lord—as He creates, preserves and destroys it. Thus absorbed in the dhyāna of the Lord, he attains the state of Samprajñāta-Samādhi. This leads naturally to the next stage; the Asamprajñāta-Samādhi—for the contemplation of the works of the Lord Ātmakrīḍa merges into Ātmarati—the self-oblivion resulting from the vision of the Divine—the pleasure of enjoying the Self. When one becomes unconscious of external objects, one is said to be in Asamprajñāta-Samādhi.

When such a Jñānin is not in this state of Asamprajñāta-Samādhi, then he is always active, always kriyāvān, always performing pūjā of the Lord, engaged in prayers and worship. Not only this, he explains to others the sacred books of the Lord, he becomes a teacher among seekers of Brahman.

Note.—The last verse showed that the Sañcita and Āgāmin karmas of the Aparokṣa-jñānin are destroyed: hut he goes on enjoying or suffering the good or bad effects of Prārabdha karmas. During this period, before his prārabdha is exhausted, does he do any act or not? This verse answers that question. It shows that he works (kriyāvān); he performs prārabdha acts only. Not only this, he is active in teaching those who are inferior to him. This is possible when he is out of Ātmarati trance. The Jñānin is not a self-centered egoist like many of the present day pretenders of that name.

Mantra 3.1.5.

5. By truthfulness is to be gained verily this Ātmaic bliss, by penance and right knowledge and constant practice of self-control. He, whom the faultless devotees see, is verily in the midst of the body, full of light and pure.—48.

[Note.—Satyena, by truthfulness. Truth is that which conduces to the greatest welfare of the good.]

[Note.—Labhyaḥ, is to be obtained or gained. That is, the direct vision or aparokśa is to be gained by truth, etc. The Beatitude is to be obtained by truth, etc.]

[Note.—Tapasā, by penance, performing properly the duties of one’s stage of life and caste, and constantly thinking about and meditating on the Lord. The three-fold tapas consisting in worshipping the Devas, the Regenerates, the Guru and the Wise, with thoughts, words and deed.]

[Note.—Jñānena, by knowledge, by the knowledge of the Truth obtained from the teaching of a Master. By perfect or ripe Aparokṣa knowldege. By the knowledge of the greatness of the Lord and loving devotion towards Him.]

[Note.—Brahmacaryeṇa by abstinence, by celibacy: by discharging the duties of a Brahma-student. By controlling the senses or studying Vedas.]

Note.—Meditation or dhyāna was said to be the method to find out the nature of the Lord by aparokṣa. This verse describes some accessories to such meditation such as truthfulness, penance, celibacy, etc.

It has been mentioned in the last verse that the Jñānins must perform karmas. Such action is not merely for the sake of welfare of the world. (Gita III, 20 and 25.): but for the sake of attaining bliss. The works like Śravaṇa, etc., performed without any desire of fruit, after one has attained parokṣa, as well as aparokṣa jñāna, lead to this beatitude of self-perception: the Ānanda transcending all Ānandas. This is not a mere assertion but there is authority for it. The word “hi” indicates this: “By jñāna is produced the cessation of all the sorrows and doubts; but by worship and actions performed with bhakti after the attainment of wisdom there arises the bliss of the Self.” Meditation leads to direct and intuitive knowledge. The accessories to such dhyāna are truthfulness, etc. The Yatis—the strivers after meditation, etc., (not necessarily Sannyāsins, the householders may be Yatis in this sense) freed from faults, see the Lord within the Self. This Lord is light, effulgent, pure, untainted by Matter—the Ātman—the Self.

Mantra 3.1.6.

6. The True alone conquers (reaches the True), and not the Untrue. By the True is guarded the path called the Devayāna, by which proceed the Ṛṣis who are satisfied in their desires, to where there is that highest place of the True.—49.

[Note.—Satyam, the true or truth, the Lord Viṣṇu. The Lord Viṣṇu is called Satya because He possesses all good (Sat) attributes; while the Asuras possess all the opposite attributes and hence are called asatya “false”; anṛta “unrighteous.” The person who is intensely devoted to Him is also called Satya. The Lord Viṣṇu should not be confounded with the minor deity of that name.]

[Note.—Anṛtam, the false, the Asuras, the unrighteous. Those who are opposed to the Lord. The Asuras do not obtain Him. Because the path by which the Lord is reached is controlled by the Lord.]

[Note.—Vitataḥ, is opened, is opened out, i.e., is controlled. Is created (by the Lord, so that His devotees may pass over to Him.)

[Note.—Ṛṣayaḥ, the seers, the wise. The word “Ṛṣi” is not used here in the technical sense of the second class of adhikāris.”]

[Note.—Āptakāmāḥ, whose desires are satisfied, who have gained the highest knowledge, it qualifies the word Ṛṣayaḥ. The highest Riṣis alone go there and not those of inferior degrees.]

Madhva’s commentary called the Bhāṣya:

The Lord Viṣṇu is called Satya because He possesses all auspicious (sat) qualities. The Asuras are called asatyas because they possess qualities opposite to those.

The highest Vaikuṇṭha loka is said to be the abode of Viṣṇu.

Note.—In the last book of the Vedānta Sutras four kinds of release (Mukti) have been taught: viz., the destruction of the fruits of action (Karmas), the destruction of the final body, the path and the enjoyment. The first kind of Mokṣa or Karina Kṣaya has been taught in the verse 11 (kṣīyante ca asya karmāṇi), when the aparokṣa knowledge is obtained.

The second class of Mukti is of two sorts—the Carama-Deha nāśa, of the Devas, and the Carama-Deha nāśa of the perfects other than the Devas. The falling off of the body of the Deva occurs only at the great Cosmic Pralaya, and even then it is not a falling off. The Devas merge with their bodies into the body of the higher Deva of their hierarchy and so on. This will be fully described under verse III, 2, 6. In the case of the Jñānīs other than the Devas (such as the human Jñānīs, Ṛṣis, etc.) the falling off of the last body takes place when they die, not to be re-born, when they transcend the circle of Saṃsāra. This is their last compulsory incarnation on Earth. When they throw off their Carama-Deha, they go to Mahar or other higher Lokas by the path of Arcis. This has been described under verse I, 2, 6.

The Marga or the path is also of two kinds—the path on which the Devas get Mukti called the path of Garuḍa, and the path of Śeṣa—and the path, on which other than the Devas attain salvation, called the path of Arcis. The paths of Garuḍa and Śeṣa will be described in the verse III, 2, 6, while the second path by which Brahman is attained is described in the next verse.

The Jñānīs are also of three kinds,—the highest, the middle and the lowest. The Devatās are the highest, the Ṛṣis the middling, and the lowest are the best of the human race. The Jñānīs—human or Divine—are sub-divided into three classes. Those who worship without symbol (apratīk-ālambana) are the highest, because they see God everywhere as all-pervading. The other two classes are described later. They (the human Jñānīs of the highest kind) go by the path of Light (Arcis). This verse describes that in a particular evolutionary period only a limited number reaches this stage. All Devatās are generally of this class: among the Ṛṣis one hundred, among the Rājas one hundred, among Gandharvas one hundred. The dead on leaving the body go to the Arcis (flame). From that place they reach the son of Vāyu, called the Ātivāhika: from there to Ahar (Day), then the.Bright Fortnight, then the six northern months, then the year, then the lightning, Varuṇa, Prajāpati and Sūrya; thence Soma (moon), Vaiśvānara, Indra, Dhruva, Devi [Devī?] and Diva. Thence they reach the Supreme Vāyu (the first begotten) who carries them to God.

Mantra 3.1.7.

7. That true shines forth as great, divine, and inconceivable., He manifests as power (to men); and as smaller than the small He manifests to the Ṛṣis. He appears as far beyond what is far, also here (in the middle) and at the end (i.e., all-pervading to the Devas). For the discerning (when they see the appropriate form) here (within their own body), in the cavity of the heart, then there is Release.—50.

[Note.—Bṛhat, great, grand in ail respects of time, space and causality. The middling Great. The Super-relative Great will be mentioned later on. He has ānanda—form also. The Bṛhat Brahman manifestation is for the best among men: they are the lowest adhikāris.]

[Note.—Sūkṣmataram, more subtle. This is manifestation of Brahman as reflection: as the sun can appear as very small in a focus. The subtle manifestation is for Ṛṣis and the rest: who are middling adhikāris. This is the Bimba-Brahman.]

[Note.—Antike, at the end, because He is all-pervading. This all-pervading or vyāpta Brahman is for the highest adhikāris, who worship without any symbol.]

Madhva’s commentary called the Bhāṣya:

As he is all-pervading he is said to be both far and near.

Note.—An objection is raised: “You have said that the Supreme Brahman is reached by the direct perception (aparokṣa jñāna) of Brahman. In the fifth verse of the next chapter is taught that the kārya or effected Brahman is only reached by aparokṣa jñāna and not the Supreme. Whereas in other parts of this book it is said that the lokas like Mahar, Jana, and Tapas are so reached. The aparokṣa jñāna being of uniform nature cannot lead to so diverse results.” To this is the reply that the aparokṣa jñāna is not of a uniform nature for all. It varies with the object of Self jñāna. This verse describes that according to the differences of adhikāris, the aspects of Brahman that they see by aparokṣa are different. The Bṛhat Brahman is the object of aparokṣa for the Human Jñānins, the Sūkṣma or Bimba Brahman for the Ṛṣis, and the all-pervading or Vyāpta Brahman for the Devas. The one and the same Brahman, by His mysterious power (acintya śakti) appears as smaller than the atom—a focus point in the heart of the Ṛṣi: as Virāṭ puruṣa to Human Perfects, and as all-pervading to the Devas. Thus the no size of the atom, the all size of the all pervading, and the middle size of the Virāṭ are all possible to Brahman, and hence the phrase acintya rūpam is applied to Him in the verse. Humanity as a rule wants an Incarnation, an Avatara [Avatāra?] of God to satisfy its heart. God must appear to it outside as some bahiḥ prakāśāḥ. Therefore the first portion of the verse” bṛhat ca tad”, applies to Brahman as seen by Human Jñānins. Not only He appears as great (Bṛhat) and possessing supernatural Divine Powers, but appears also full of bliss, etc. To the Ṛṣi adhikāris He appears as sūkṣmāt sūkṣmatara “smaller than the small” the point in the focus—the Bimba. For Ṛṣis are said to have antarprakāśa. While to the Devas, He appears as all-pervading, who is farther than the far—dūrat sudūre;—and who is “iha” in the middle and “antike” at the end—“far off,” “here,” and “at the end”—in other words all-pervading.

Thus the three objects of aparokṣa perception have been declared, according to the class of the adhikāri, as they are uttama (best), madhyama (middling) and adhama (lowest). How this aparokṣa-jñāna arises in them is described in the last sentence of this verse: paśyatsu iha eva, etc., when these various adhikārīs see the appropriate object of their aparokṣa perception in their heart, then they get Release. See Vedānta sutra III, 3.51. The Lokas beginning with Mahar and ending with Vaikuṇṭha—Mahar, Jana, Tapas, Satya [Satyam] and Vaikuṇṭha are to be reached by Jñāna alone: while three Lokas—Bhuḥ, Bhuvaḥ and Svar are obtained by Karma. The apratikālambana worshippers reach the Brahman in Vaikuṇṭha, when they see the all-pervading form of the Lord. The Ṛṣis, etc., by seeing the Bimba-Brahman, reach the Satya-loka Brahman in Satya-loka. The Human Jñānins by seeing the Bṛhat-Brahman reach the Mahar, Jana or Tapas Loka according to their grade. The Human Jñānins are of three kinds: the Tapasvins who perform penance. They go to the Tapas world. The Yogins are the second class—they go to the Jana-loka; and Quarter yogins (Padayogins) go to the Mahar-loka. All these three sorts of adhikāris get mukti by seeing the Bimba in their heart. Thus mokṣa may be defined to be the cessation of infinite evils accompanied by the residing in one’s own form (svarūpa). Thus mokṣa is not of various kinds—it is the same for all: but the variety is in the different kinds of aparokṣa-jñāna.

Now this seeing of Bimba, which is the immediate cause of mukti, results from the teaching of Hiraṇyagarbha. See Praśna Up. V. 5. where the Jīvaghana or Brahmā is said to teach the Jñānins the final wisdom. So also in the Kaṭha Up. I. 2.20 where the grace of the Dhātā is said to be the cause of Mukti.

This Bimba-vision obtained through the grace of Caturmukha is different from the bimba-darśana of the Madhyama adhikāris, i.e., the Ṛṣis. For it was already mentioned before that the Deva Jñānins see the Vyapta [Vyāpta?] Brahman, the Ṛṣi Jñānins see the Bimba-Brahman, etc., the Human Jñānins see the Avatāra-Brahman, The Bimba-vision through the grace of Caturmukha is not the vision of the “smaller than the smallest”—which is the ordinary bimba-vision of the Ṛṣi Jñānins. The Bimba-vision here consists in manifesting transcendental qualities and attributes, and size and proportion greater than any Jīva. Therefore the Kāṭhaka verse uses the words “ātmanaḥ mahimānam” “greater than the Jīva”—The word Ātman there means Jīva and mahimānam means “greater than.” “Viṣṇu is called Mahimān because He is greater in quantity and quality than the Jīva” (Kaṭha bhāṣya) Therefore the Ṛṣis also must see this Bimba before they can get mukti. For it is essentially necessary for mokṣa that one (whether a Deva Jñānin or a Ṛṣi Jñānin or a Human Jñānin) should see this Bimba—this Mahimān form, through the grace of the first Begotten.

Mantra 3.1.8.

8. He cannot be apprehended by senses like the eye nor by revealed texts, nor by the grace of any other shining one. Only through the grace of Wisdom, when one has become free from rajas and tamas, and thrown off the sixteen-fold body, he sees Him by means of constant meditation. Or the pure in heart see in meditation Him who is without a sixteen-fold body, then only when there is grace of Wisdom.—51.

[Note.—Jñāna, knowledge. Namely, by Vāyu, who is all knowledge. Or by Brahmā who is also called Jñāna [jñānam] or wisdom. Prasādena, by the grace of Jñāna:—by the grace of Vāyu, or Caturmukha Brahmā or Hari himself. Jñānaprasādena, through the grace of wisdom (Hari the Most High, and Brahmā the Teacher). The grace is the immediate cause of mukti, meditation, etc., are only occasions or nimitta cause.]

[Note.—Viśuddha, pure. Sattva, nature, mind. By the sattva element becoming free from the admixture of rajas and tamas. Viśuddhasattva [viśuddhasattvaḥ], pure in heart.]

[Note.—Niṣkalam, without kalās or parts. Without the sixteen-fold body. See Praśna Up. V. The body of Hari is not like that of the Jīva having sixteen parts.]

Madhva’s commentary called the Bhāṣya:

Hari cannot be seen through the grace of any other devas, except of Vāyu who is Wisdom personified, or through the grace of Brahmā or of Hari who is the Supreme Wisdom himself. When these are gracious, then alone Brahman is seen. Other devas can give only subsidiary knowledge that would help such realisation.

The word niṣkalaḥ means he who has not a body consisting of sixteen elements or kalās. The body of the Lord is of bliss, as says the Śruti:—“When the seer sees the Golden coloured Lord whose shape is Blissful, who is immortal, etc., Om.”

Note.—The Vision of God is entirely a matter of grace. When the Son of God—called Vāyu—becomes gracious, the Father is seen. No one has seen the Father, but through the Son. See Vedānta Sūtra III. 2 26. The various devas, like Indra and others, cannot give this vision: except when they act as channels of the Supreme. Thus they (Devas) are not useless—indirectly they can also lead to mukti.

The organs like the eye, etc., cannot give the knowledge of Brahman, nor can speech or revelation give God-Vision: nor can any other devas. Because by penance and by sacrifices He cannot be seen, because the adhikāri whose heart is pure, and who meditates on Him, who is free from 16 parts, cannot see Him through the grace of any other deity, therefore the necessity of grace; for by the Grace of Wisdom namely of Vāyu, or of Caturmukhā Brahmā or of Supreme Wisdom Hari himself, can Brahman be seen. Brahman is seen only through grace and grace alone.

Mantra 3.1.9.

9. This Atomic Self (the Supreme Lord) is to be known by that mind alone in which (first) the Chief Prāṇa (through His grace) has completely withdrawn (the out-going activities of his subordinate) five-fold prāṇas: for the (five-fold) mind of all created beings is entirely interwoven by these five prāṇas and is consequently never quiet: (and secondly) by that mind, which, being perfectly pure, makes the soul manifest its powers.—52.

[Note.—Aṇuḥ, subtle, atomic. It is illustrative of the other two sizes also, viz., the madhyama parimāna and the vyāpta.]

[Note.—Ātmā, self. The Supreme. The Lord. The Ātman appears aṇu to the madhyama ādhikarī; and All-pervading and Great to the other two. All three are meant here: aṇu is merely illustrative, and includes the other two.]

[Note.—Pañcadhā, five-fold: prāṇa, apāna, vyāna, samāna and udāna. Or five-fold cetas, i.e, Manas (cogitation, sensation), Buddhi (determination, perception), Ahaṅkāra (will) Citta [cittam] (thought) and Cetanā (feeling). These are the five-fold cetas. This word ‘five-fold’ qualifies both cetas and prāṇaiḥ—five-fold mind and the five-fold prāṇas.]

According to Raghavendra yati.

This Ātman (Mukhya Prāṇa) abides in all as an atom. It is to be known by the mind. All the mind of the created beings, along with the senses, is supported by the chief Prāṇa. That Prāṇa with its fivefold sub-divisions is completely sustained in the pure Hari. Thus this Self becomes glorious.

Note.—Max Muller, following Śaṅkara, translates this verse thus: “That subtle Self is to be known by thought: there where breath has entered five-fold: for every thought of men is interwoven with the senses; and when thought is purified, then the Self arises.” According to Rāghavendra yati, the first yasmin refers to the Mukhya Prāṇa, the second yasmin to Hari the Lord. The Ātman is atomic, and to be apprehended by thought. The method is:—that first all the senses and the citta [cittam] should be merged in the Mukhya Prāṇa. Then this chief Vital Air with the five permanent atoms—prāṇa, apāna, etc., should be mergedin the Pure Hari who is its support. When this is done, the Ātman manifests its powers.

By what organ or sense is the Lord then to be apprehended? This verse answers this query. The cetas is the organ by which the Ātman can be known. But it is not ordinary mind that can see the Lord, for with regard to such mind the prohibition still holds good—the Brahman is not to be perceived by mind—yan mānasa na manute (see Kenopaniṣad). But by the mind which is pure (viśuddha)—by that mind where this Jīva manifests its activities of manana, śravaṇa, &e. can Brahman be seen. Moreover this mind must get the Grace of the Mukhya Prāṇa before it can see God. Thus the dictum that the Ātman cannot be apprehended by the mind holds good, with these reservations. It cannot be known by the mind which is not pure and whose powers have not been unfolded by study, meditation, etc., and which has not attracted the grace of the First-Begotten—Prathama Prāṇaḥ.

The chief Prāṇa, with his fivefold functions—prāṇa (inspiration), apāna (expiration), vyāna (circulation of blood) samāna (alimentation) and udāna (the hypnotic or dying function) enters completely into the fivefold mind (cogitation, determination, will, cognition, and feeling) of all creatures, and thus disables the mind to see Para Brahma. So long as the Chief Prāṇa does not draw in the subordinate five prāṇas from their out-going activities and merge them into the fivefold mind, the latter is always distracted and cannot perceive the God. It is thus the Chief Prāṇa that gives the mind quietness and the Will and Faith necessary for the Divine Vision. By its own ordinary powers, the mind cannot get the Divine Vision.

Mantra 3.1.10.

10. To whatever Loka the man whose nature is purified imagines to go, or whatever objects of desire he wishes to get—to that loka he transports himself at once, and those desires he obtains. Therefore let the man who desires prosperity, honor the man who knows the Self.—53.

[Note.—Viśuddha-Sattvaḥ, the person whose sattva is purified, He who knows the Self. Who has got the aparokṣa knowledge of the Lord.]

Note.—This verse declares the glory of the knower of the Self. It was mentioned before that the karmas were exhausted by aparokṣa jñāna of the Lord. But this is not the sole result of such knowledge. On the contrary the gaining of Heaven, etc., also results from it, as well as of other pleasures.

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