by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550
This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...
Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:
अदत्तानामुपादानं हिंसा चैवाविधानतः ।
परदारोपसेवा च शारीरं त्रिविधं स्मृतम् ॥ ७ ॥
adattānāmupādānaṃ hiṃsā caivāvidhānataḥ |
paradāropasevā ca śārīraṃ trividhaṃ smṛtam || 7 ||
Taking what has not been given, unsanctioned killing, and intercourse with the wives of others—these have been declared to be three kinds of ‘bodily action.’—(7)
Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):
Accepting from unworthy people of what has not been given, and what is itself an impure thing.
‘Wives of others’—includes unmarried maidens also.
As against these there are—accepting proper gifts in the proper manner, protecting others and controlling of the organs.
Thus has Action proceeding from Mind, Speech and Body, been described as being of‘ten kinds’; and according as each of these is either ‘good’ or ‘bad,’ we have twenty kinds.—(7)
Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha
This verse is quoted in Madanapārijāta (p. 692); in Aparārka (p. 998), which adds that the ten kinds of sinful acts, proceeding from the mind, speech and body, when committed intentionally and repeatedly, should be understood to be what leads to the map being born in such bodies as those of the Cāṇḍāla and the like; but of, the same kinds of acts, when done unintentionally, the results are different;—in Nṛsiṃhaprasāda (Prāyaścitta 41a);—in Hemādri (Kāla, p. 632);—and in Smṛtisāroddhāra (p. 88).
Comparative notes by various authors
Yājñavalkya (8.135).—‘The man, who is addicted to taking what has not been given to him, or associates with the wives of other men, or kills animals in a way not sanctioned by the scriptures, is born among trees.’