by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550
This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...
Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:
व्रात्यात् तु जायते विप्रात् पापात्मा भूर्जकण्टकः ।
आवन्त्यवाटधानौ च पुष्पधः शैख एव च ॥ २१ ॥
vrātyāt tu jāyate viprāt pāpātmā bhūrjakaṇṭakaḥ |
āvantyavāṭadhānau ca puṣpadhaḥ śaikha eva ca || 21 ||
From the ‘Apostate’ Brāhmaṇa is born the evil- natured ‘Bhṛjjakaṇṭaka,’ the Āvantya, the ‘Vāṭadhāna’ the ‘Puṣpadha,’ and the ‘Śaikha.’—(21)
Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):
‘On wives of the same caste’—of the preceding verse—is to be construed with this also.
Though the caste of the women is not specified in this text, and yet it being necessary to know her caste, we learn it from another Smṛti, where it is said that—‘The, son born to the Brāhmaṇa from a Vaiśya woman is called Bhṛjjakanṭaka’ (Gautama, 4.20).
The characteristic of this caste is stated—‘evil-natured.’ The one described before (under 8) is not ‘evil-natured,’ because he is born ‘in the natural order’; the one mentioned here is rightly decried, because he is born of an Apostate for whom the sacramental rites have not been performed, and is, as such, not entitled to any religious acts.
The several names are mentioned not merely by way of synonyms, but in order to show by what names the particular mixed caste is known in different countries.
The older writers however explain that the second and following names are those of the successive descendants of the ‘Bhṛjjakaṇṭaka.’ That is, the son born from the Brāhmaṇa mother is the ‘Bhṛjjakaṇṭaka,’ that born from the ‘Āvantya’ mother is the ‘Āvantya’ or the ‘Vāṭadhāna’; from the ‘Vaṭadhāna’ mother is born the ‘Puṣpadha,’ and from the ‘Puṣpadha’ the ‘Shaikha,’ and so on.—(21)
Comparative notes by various authors
See Comparative notes for Verse 10.6.