Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi
by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550
This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...
Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:
सर्वेषामपि तु न्याय्यं दातुं शक्त्या मनीषिणा ।
ग्रासाच्छादनमत्यन्तं पतितो ह्यददद् भवेत् ॥ २०२ ॥
sarveṣāmapi tu nyāyyaṃ dātuṃ śaktyā manīṣiṇā |
grāsācchādanamatyantaṃ patito hyadadad bhavet || 202 ||
But it is fair that the wise man shall give even to all these food and clothing to the best of his ability; if he does not give it at all, he becomes an outcast.—(202)
Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):
‘All these’—Eunuchs and the rest.
‘At all’—throughout life.
‘Food and clothing’—being necessary for the keeping of the body; it is implied that he should provide enough to enable them to engage the necessary servants and other attendants; specially because in the case of the blind and the rest, living would be impossible without a servant. Those again for whom marriage is permitted, the provision made should include that for their wives also.
‘To the best of his ability’—the food and clothing provided shall be in accordance with the man’s own wealth.
‘Outcast’—this is purely declamatory.—(202)
Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha
‘Atyantam’—‘For life’ (Medhātithi and Kullūka);—‘at all’ (taken with ‘adadat’, ‘not giving’) [Nārāyaṇa].
This verse is quoted in Mitākṣarā, (2.140) to the effect that if the persons mentioned in the preceding verse are not properly maintained the persons responsible become ‘degraded,’—‘atyantam’ means ‘for life’; it goes on to add that these persons are debarred from inheritance only if they are found to have the said disqualifications before the division of the patrimony,—not after the partition has taken place; and that if the said disqualifications are subsequently removed by medication, they get their share in the property. It concludes by saying that the said disqualifications are applicable in the case of women also.
It is quoted in Vivādaratnākara, (p. 487), which adds the following notes:—‘Sarveṣām,’ of the eunuch and the rest,—‘atyantam,’ for life;—in Vyavahāramayūkha, (p. 73), to the effect that those who are not entitled to inheritance are yet entitled to maintenance throughout life;—in Parāśaramādhava, (Vyavahāra, p. 366), which explains ‘atyantam’ as ‘for life’—in Madanapārijāta, (p. 682), which adds the following notes:—‘Sarveṣām,’ those not entitled to inheritance,—‘atyantam,’ for life;—the said disqualifications are effective bars only if found before partition, not if they are found after partition, or if they are cured by medication, or if the necessary expiatory rites are duly performed;—in Vyavahāra-Bālambhaṭṭī, (p. 349 and 575);—and in Vīramitrodaya, (Vyavahāra, 221b).
Comparative notes by various authors
See Comparative notes for Verse 9.201.