by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550
This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...
Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:
तस्माद् यम इव स्वामी स्वयं हित्वा प्रियाप्रिये ।
वर्तेत याम्यया वृत्त्या जितक्रोधो जितेन्द्रियः ॥ १७३ ॥
tasmād yama iva svāmī svayaṃ hitvā priyāpriye |
varteta yāmyayā vṛttyā jitakrodho jitendriyaḥ || 173 ||
For these reasons, the King shall, like Yama, renounce his likes and dislikes, and behave in the manner of Yama,—his anger suppressed and his senses controlled.—(173)
Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):
The same idea is further expounded.
‘This servant is my own and hence I like him,—this other is only an inhabitant of my kingdom, and is proceeding against the former, hence I dislike him’;—all such ideas he should renounce.
In the protecting of, and dealings with, his subjects, he shall be entirely impartial, like Yuma; the ‘manner of Yama’ having been found to be strictly impartial. The form ‘yāmyayā’ is explained by the exclusion of the ‘yaṇ’ affix mentioned in Pāṇini 6.4.148 and the addition of the syllable ‘ya’ under one of the additional rules.
“Who is the person who becomes like Yama?”
He who has ‘his anger suppressed and senses controlled’;—i .e., one should renounce all attachment and thus overcome love and hatred.—(173)
Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha
This verse is quoted in Nṛsiṃhaprasāda (Vyavahāra, 2b).
Comparative notes by various authors
Nārada (18.30).—‘When the King, having seated himself full of majesty on the throne of judgment, deals out punishment, equitable towards all creatures, he is called Vaivasvata or Yama.’