Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi

by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550

This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:

सन्धिं तु द्विविधं विद्याद् राजा विग्रहमेव च ।
उभे यानासने चैव द्विविधः संश्रयः स्मृतः ॥ १६२ ॥
समानयानकर्मा च विपरीतस्तथैव च ।
तदा त्वायतिसंयुक्तः सन्धिर्ज्ञेयो द्विलक्षणः ॥ १६३ ॥

sandhiṃ tu dvividhaṃ vidyād rājā vigrahameva ca |
ubhe yānāsane caiva dvividhaḥ saṃśrayaḥ smṛtaḥ || 162 ||
samānayānakarmā ca viparītastathaiva ca |
tadā tvāyatisaṃyuktaḥ sandhirjñeyo dvilakṣaṇaḥ || 163 ||

But the King shall know that Alliance and War are of two kinds; so also both Marching and Halting; and Seeking shelter also has been declared to be of two kinds.—(162)

Alliance, endowed with future possibilities, is of two kinds—(1) that in which the act of marching is undertaken in common and (2) that; in which it is otherwise.—(163)


Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):

(verses 7.162-163)

(1) ‘That in which the act of marching is undertaken in common’,—in which the agreement entered into is in the following form:—‘Let us march at the goal conjointly, having equal shares in it, and I shall not be passed over by you; whatever we gain shall belong to both of us’:—(2) Or that ‘You march one way, I go the other’; where the action is not joint, it is ‘otherwise’—(162-163)


Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha

(verse 7.162)

This verse is quoted in Vīramitrodaya (Rājanīti, p. 325), which adds the following notes:—‘Sandhi,’ ‘alliance’, is of two kinds—(1) the compact that ‘both of us should march against a common enemy’, and (2) the compact that ‘you march this way, I march the other way’;—‘War’ also is of two kinds—(1) declared by one’s self against an enemy, and (2) undertaken for helping an ally attacked by an enemy;—‘Marching’ also is of two kinds—(1) singly, and (2) conjointly with an ally; ‘Halting’ also is of two kinds—(1) done on account of weakness and (2) done for the purpose of waiting to help an ally;—‘Division of forces’ is of two kinds—(1) the king remaining with half the force in the fort and the Commander-in-chief going out to meet the enemy and (2) the reverse arrangement;—‘Seeking protection’ also is of two kinds—(1) done for the rescuing of what has been lost and (2) done for awaiting future aggression.

(verse 7.163)

Nārāyaṇa and Nandana take the term ‘tadā tvāyatisaṃyuktaḥ’ as referring to two different cases,—‘yielding either (a) immediate, or (b) future advantages.’

This verse is quoted in Vīramitrodaya (Rājanīti, p. 325) to the effect that the two kinds of ‘alliance’ spoken of above (see preceding note) are each again of two kinds, as leading to (a) immediate advantage or (b) future advantage.


Comparative notes by various authors

(verse 7.162)

Kāmandaka (4.68, 74).—‘The King should form alliance with a person, illustrious, well-spoken, benevolent, learned, even-minded, having numerous partisans and expected to remain constant in faithfulness at all times. Friends are of four kinds—derived from birth, relationship, ancestral obligations and protection from danger.’

(verse 7.163)

Kāmandaka (9.5, etc.).—‘Peace concluded between two parties of equal resources is called Kapāla-sandhi. The peace concluded through the offer of presents is called Upahāra. Santāna-sandhi is that concluded by the king by giving his daughter in marriage to his royal adversary. That peace is called Saṅgata-sandhi which is founded on friendship; this is also called Kāñcana. Peace that is concluded with a view to putting a stop to all outstanding controversies has been named

Upanyāsa. “If I do him good, he will do the same to me.”—Peace concluded under this consideration is called Pratīkāra-sandhi. When two parties join one another for the accomplishing of common interests and, if they enjoy mutual confidence,—this peace is called Samyoga, etc.

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