by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550
This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...
Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:
एताः प्रकृतयो मूलं मण्डलस्य समासतः ।
अष्टौ चान्याः समाख्याता द्वादशैव तु ताः स्मृताः ॥ १५६ ॥
etāḥ prakṛtayo mūlaṃ maṇḍalasya samāsataḥ |
aṣṭau cānyāḥ samākhyātā dvādaśaiva tu tāḥ smṛtāḥ || 156 ||
These four components are, in brief, the root of the circle; eight others also have been described; these being the twelve that have been spoken op.—(156)
Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):
‘That have been spoken of’;—these have been described as the ‘root’ or basic components of the circle; and there are ‘eight others’ also,—i.e., each of these four have two belonging to each, in the shape of the ‘ally’ and the ‘enemy’. The four original components, together with these eight, constitute the ‘twelve’.—(156)
Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha
“The eight other constituents are, according to Kāmandakī 8.16-17, (a) in front beyond the foe’s territory—(1) a friend, (2) the foe’s friend, (3) the friend’s friend (4) the foe’s friends, friend;—(b) in the roar—(1) he who attacks in the rear, (2) he who restrains the latter, (3) and (4) the supporters of these two.”—Buhler.
The first half of this verse is quoted in Vīramitrodaya (Rājanīti, p. 320), where also the above eight are mentioned.
Comparative notes by various authors
See Comparative notes for Verse 7.155.