Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi

by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550

This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:

अनर्चितं वृथामांसमवीरायाश्च योषितः ।
द्विषदन्नं नगर्यन्नं पतितान्नमवक्षुतम् ॥ २१३ ॥

anarcitaṃ vṛthāmāṃsamavīrāyāśca yoṣitaḥ |
dviṣadannaṃ nagaryannaṃ patitānnamavakṣutam || 213 ||

Nor what is offered without respect, nor improper meat, nor food belonging to a male-less female, nor the food of an eneny, nor the food of the city-lord, nor the food of an outcast, nor that which has been sneezed at.—(213)


Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):

Offered without respect,’—that which is given in a disrespectful maimer, to a person who deserves to be treated with respect. This does not refer to food that may be offered by friends and others.

Improper meat,’— which has been cooked for one’s own self, and is not the remnant of the worship of gods.

Maleless female,’— one who has neither husband nor son.

Enemy,’—an adversary.

City-lord’—one who is the master of a city, though not a king.

Which has been sneered at,’—over which some one has sneezed.—(213)


Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha

Nagaryannam’—‘Food given by the lord of a city, even though he may not be a king’ (Medhātithi); ‘food belonging to a whole town’ (Kullūka and Govindarāja).

This verse is quoted in Mitākṣarā (on 3.290);—and in Smṛtitattva (p. 451) which says—‘anarcita’ is that which is given in an insulting manner; ‘vṛthā-māṃsa’ is that which has not been prepared for offering to the gods and Pitṛs;—the ‘avīrā’ woman is one who has no husband or son; this prohibition applies to only such women as are not related to one’s self;—‘nagaryanna’ is the food belonging to the master of a city;—‘avakṣuta’ is that over which some one has sneezed.

It is quoted in Madanapārijāta (p. 945);—and in Vīramitrodaya (Āhnika, p. 495), which adds the following notes:—‘anarcita’,—the food is so called when it is offered without due respect, to one who deserves respect;—‘vṛthāmāṃsa’ is that meat which has not been cooked for offering to the gods and Pitṛs;—‘avīrā’ is a woman without husband or sons, or grandsons or great-grandsons; this prohibition applies to the case of an unrelated woman, such being the custom, says Śūlapāṇi;—‘dviṣat’,—is one who causes injury;—‘nagarī’ is the master of a city, even though he may not be the king, says Medhātithi;—‘patita’ is the Brāhmaṇa-murderer and the like;—‘avakṣutam’—sneezed upon.

It is quoted in Hemādri (Śrāddha, p. 773);—and in Prāyaścittaviveka (p. 260), which adds the following notes:—‘Anarcitam’, rejected as bad,—‘avīrā’, a woman without husband or sons or any male relatives,—‘nagarī’ means a ‘person in charge of a city’,—‘avakṣutam’, which has been sneezed upon.


Comparative notes by various authors

Gautama (17.17-19).—‘Food needlessly cooked;—also food offered without respect.’

Āpastamba (1.17. 4).—‘The food that is given after chiding.’

(Do.) (2.6.19).—‘One should not eat the food of that person towards whom one is unfriendly, or who is unfriendly to one; or defective meat.’

Vaśiṣṭha (14.2).—(See above.)

Viṣṇu (51.11, 18, 10).—‘Food of the maleless woman, of the goldsmith, of the enemy, of the outcast;—food intentionally touched with the feet, or sneezed upon; improper meat, and that offered without respect.’

Yājñavalkya (1.162-104).—‘Of the physician...... the enemy, the outcast......;—of the maleless woman, of the goldsmith, of the man who is controlled by his wife, of the village-sacrificer, of the man selling weapons, of the carpenter, of the weaver and of one who makes a living by dogs;—of the cruel king, of the dyer, of the ungrateful man, of the man who lives by slaughtering animals, of the clothes-washer, of the wine-seller, and of the man who permits his wife’s paramour to live in the house.’

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