by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550
This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...
Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:
उपाकर्मणि चोत्सर्गे त्रिरात्रं क्षेपणं स्मृतम् ।
अष्टकासु त्वहोरात्रं ऋत्वन्तासु च रात्रिषु ॥ ११९ ॥
upākarmaṇi cotsarge trirātraṃ kṣepaṇaṃ smṛtam |
aṣṭakāsu tvahorātraṃ ṛtvantāsu ca rātriṣu || 119 ||
At the ceremony of upākarma and at that of utsarjana, omission of study has been prescribed for three days, but at the Aṣṭakāṣ for one day and night; as also on the last nights of the seasons.—(119)
Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):
It has been said above (verse 97) that, at the Utsarjana ceremony, one night, along with the preceding and the following days, has deen declared to be unfit for study; and with that the present text lays down the option of observing ‘three days.’ But, in connection with the ‘Upākarma,’ this is the original Injunction.
‘Aṣṭakās’—i. e., the three or four eighth nights during the fortnights following after the Full-Moon of the month of Āgrahāyaṇa. Though it has been said above that the whole day and night is to be observed on the eighth days of all fortnights, yet its mention in the present connection is only right and proper, as emphasizing the obligatory character of the rule; and, throughout the present context, we have to regard two rules as optional only when each is found to be self-sufficient.
‘On the last nights of the seasons;’—‘one day and night’ is to be construed with this also. There are six seasons; and the day on which one ends and the other begins, is to be regarded as unfit for study; and the mention of ‘night’ is only by way of an indicative.—(119).
Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha
For the ‘Seasons’, see Sūryasiddhānta, 14.10.
The first half of this Verse is quoted in Vīramitrodaya (Saṃskāra, p. 531);—in Nirṇayasindhu (p. 193);—in Hemādri (Kāla, p. 760);—in Saṃskāramayūkha (p. 59);—in Smṛticandrikā (Saṃskāra, p. 154);—in Gadādharapaddhati (Kāla, p. 195);—and in Saṃskāraratnamālā (p. 332), which explains ‘kṣapaṇam’ as ‘anadhyāyaḥ’.
Comparative notes by various authors
Āpastamba Dharmasūtra (1.10.1-2).—‘The full moon days of Phālguna, Āṣāḍha and Kārtika, the Aṣṭakā’s and the Upākaraṇa ceremony are occasions for a three-days holiday.’
Gautama (16.37, 39).—‘The full moon day of Kārttika, Phālguna and Āṣāḍha, and the three Aṣṭakās—are occasions for three-days’ holiday.’
Viṣṇu (30.5, 21, 25).—‘Nor at the junction of seasons, nor during an eclipse, nor at the Upākarma, nor at the Utsarjana ceremony.’
Yājñavalkya (1.6.144, 146).—‘By reason of the Upākarma or the Utsarga ceremony, or the death of a Vedic Scholar of one’s own recension,—also on the fifteenth, fourteenth and eighth days of the month, on the occasion of an eclipse, at the juncture of seasons, and on the occasion of eating, or receiving gifts, at a Śrāddha.’
Pāraskara (2.10.23).—‘They should not read for three days.’
Do. (2.11.2).—‘On eating at a Śrāddha...... at the juncture of the seasons,—they shall not road till the same time next day.’
Gobhila (3.3.22).—‘On the three full moon nights of Kārttika, Phālguna and Āṣāḍha.’