Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi

by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550

This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:

व्रतस्थमपि दौहित्रं श्राद्धे यत्नेन भोजयेत् ।
कुतपं चासनं दद्यात् तिलैश्च विकिरेन् महीम् ॥ २३४ ॥

vratasthamapi dauhitraṃ śrāddhe yatnena bhojayet |
kutapaṃ cāsanaṃ dadyāt tilaiśca vikiren mahīm || 234 ||

At a śrāddha he should, with special care, feed the daughter’s son, even though he be still under vows (of studentship). He should offer the blanket as seat and scatter sesamum on the ground.—(234)


Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):

The propriety of feeding the daughter’s son is put forward here as a substitute (for what has been enjoined in the preceding verses).

The ‘Kutapa’ is a piece of cloth of the shape of a blanket, and made of the goat-wool; it is known among the Northerners as ‘Kambala’ (Blanket). This he should give as sent.

This does not apply to the case of the daughter’s son only, but to that of all guests; that this is so, is shown by what is going to be said regarding ‘three things being sacred at śrāddhas’ (next verse); which shows that this is meant to apply to every kind of śrāddha.

Scatter sesamum’—on the ground.—(234)


Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha

Kutapam’—The commentators are agreed in explaining this as ‘blanket,’ The word also means ‘the hour of the day after half-past eleven, the best suited for the offering of Śrāddhas.’ This meaning, however, is not applicable to the present verse.

This verse is quoted in Aparārka (p. 475), which explains ‘kutapa’ as ‘blanket.’


Comparative notes by various authors

(verses 3.234-235)

Viṣṇu (79, 16).—‘The rhinoceros’ horn, deer-skin, sesamum, white mustard, washed rice,—these should be deposited as purifiers and destroyers of evil spirits.’

Viṣṇu (73, 18).—‘The daughter’s son also is a fit recipient.’

Brahmapurāṇa (Aparārka, p. 474).—‘The three-staffed Ascetic, compassion, silver-vessel, the daughter’s son, the Kutapa-tṛṇa, the goat and the skin of the black antelope, three kinds of sesamum.’

Devala (Aparārka, p. 471).—‘Kuśa, sesamum, elephant’s shadow, daughter’s son, honey, clarified butter, Kutapa, the Nīla ox,—these are sacred at Śrāddhas.’

Matsyapurāṇa (Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi-Pariśeṣa-Śrāddha, p. 448).—‘He shall feed, with care, the daughter’s son, the father-in-law, the preceptor, the brother-in-law, the maternal uncle, maternal and paternal relations, priests officiating at sacrifice, Ācarya and the wife’s brother.’

Prabhāsakhaṇḍa (Do.).—‘Daughter’s son, officiating priest, son-in-law, sister’s son, father-in-law, pupils, relations by marriage, are to be fed; specially marriage-relations, daughter’s son, sister’s husband, sister’s son;—these should not be ignored even though they be illiterate.’

Vaśiṣṭha (11, 32).—[Reproduces Manu, 235.]

Laghu-Śātātapa (107).—[ReproducesManu, 235, reading ‘satya,’ ‘truthfulness’ in place of ‘śauca,’ and ‘ārjava,’ ‘straight-forwardness’ in place of ‘atvarā.’]

Smṛtyantara (Aparārka, p. 474 (471?)).—‘Daughter’s son, vessels made of rhinoceros-horn, clarified butter of Kapilā cow,—all these have been described as Dauhitra.’

Vṛddha-Śātātapa (Do.).—‘Daughter’s son and vessels made of rhinoceros-horn are called Dauhitra.’

Smṛtyantara (Do.).—‘Brāhmaṇa, blanket, cows, sun, fire, date, sesamum, kuśa, time,—these nine have been called Kutapa.’

Matsya-purāṇa (Do.).—‘The Prācināvita, water, sesamum, left side of the body, Yava, Nīvāra, Mudga, while flowers, clarified butter,—these are very dear to Pitṛs.’

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