Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi

by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550

This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:

अस्रं गमयति प्रेतान् कोपोऽरीननृतं शुनः ।
पादस्पर्शस्तु रक्षांसि दुष्कृतीनवधूननम् ॥ २३० ॥

asraṃ gamayati pretān kopo'rīnanṛtaṃ śunaḥ |
pādasparśastu rakṣāṃsi duṣkṛtīnavadhūnanam || 230 ||

Tears make the food go to ghosts, anger to enemies, lie to dogs, touching with the foot to demons, and shaking to sinners.—(230)

 

Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):

This verse is supplementary to what has gone before in the preceding verse.

The shedding of tears, when done, makes the Śrāddha-offering go—i.e., sends it—to ‘ghosts’; and it does not become helpful to the Pitṛs. The term ‘preta,’ ‘ghost,’ here stands for a particular class of beings, of the same kind as Piśācas; and not. for persons recently dead and not yet joined to their ancestors.

Demons’—also should be understood in the same manner as ‘ghosts.’

Enemies’—well-known.

Sinners’—People addicted to sinful deeds.—(230)

 

Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha

This verse is quoted in Gadādharapaddhati (Kāla, p. 550), which explains ‘duṣkṛtān’ as ‘sinners’.

 

Comparative notes by various authors

Devala (Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi-Śrāddha, p. 1030).—‘If there is some flaw in cleanliness, Rākṣasas take away all that is sacrificed or offered or given away or eaten, all japa, all austerities and all learning;—similarly also what is given in anger, or what is eaten in hurry, the Rākṣasas take away both these;—having invited the Pitṛs, one shall do nothing that may be improper; therefore one shall perform the Śrāddha with speech and anger under control;—one shall not be angry with any one, even though there be cause for it; what pleases the Pitṛs is the Śrāddha that is free from anger.’

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