Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi

by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550

This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:

अवकाशेषु चोक्षेषु जलतीरेषु चैव हि ।
विविक्तेषु च तुष्यन्ति दत्तेन पितरः सदा ॥ २०७ ॥

avakāśeṣu cokṣeṣu jalatīreṣu caiva hi |
vivikteṣu ca tuṣyanti dattena pitaraḥ sadā || 207 ||

The Pitṛs are always pleased with what is offered in glean places, on water-banks and in secluded places.—(207)


Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):

Avakāśa,’ is place, spot.

Cokṣa’—naturally clean and tending to mental calm; such as forests, etc.

Water-banks’— sand-banks, near rivers.

Secluded places’—uncrowded sacred places.

This verse contains a totally different injunction. Hence, in the case of such places, the rule regarding smearing with cowdung does not apply; because the rule (in the preceding verse) distinctly says that ‘one should make it so;’ which means that the rule applies to a place where cleanness has to be brought about. In regard to places that are naturally clean, their fitness is secured by ‘being examined and sprinkled with water.’

By the Śrāddha ‘offered’— performed—in such places, the Pitṛs become greatly pleased.—(207)


Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha

Cokṣesu’—‘ Naturally clean’ (Medhātithi, Govindarāja, Kullūka and Nārāyaṇa);—and ‘pleasing’ (Nandana and Rāghavānanda).

This verse is quoted in Aparārka (p. 471), which explains ‘cokṣa’ as a ‘place that is naturally clean’;—in Hemādri (Śrāddha, p. 160);—and in Śrāddhakriyākaumndī (p. 102).


Comparative notes by various authors

Viṣṇu (85.54-61).—‘On large rivers, on all natural spots, on river-banks, on streams, on hills, in groves, in forests, in parks.’

Yama (Aparārka p. 471).—‘Śrāddhas should be offered in sacred buildings, on river-banks, in Tīrthas, and on one’s own land, in groves near hills, and on mountain-tops.’

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