by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550
This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...
Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:
श्वक्रीडी श्येनजीवी च कन्यादूषक एव च ।
हिंस्रो वृषलवृत्तिश्च गणानां चैव याजकः ॥ १६४ ॥
śvakrīḍī śyenajīvī ca kanyādūṣaka eva ca |
hiṃsro vṛṣalavṛttiśca gaṇānāṃ caiva yājakaḥ || 164 ||
He who sports with dogs, the falconer, the defiler of virgins, the cruel man, he who derives his subsistence from Śūdras, and he who sacrifices to the Gaṇas.—(164)
Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):
‘He who sports with dogs’—i.e., keeps dogs for sporting purposes.
‘Falconer’—he who lives on falcons,—i.e, by baying and selling them. The ‘bird-keeper’ mentioned before (162) is one who keeps them in cages.
He who makes a virgin cease to be a virgin is called ‘the defiler of virgins.’
The ‘cruel man’ is one who takes delight in killing animals.
He who derives subsistence from serving the Śūdras.
‘Vṛṣalaputraḥ’ is another reading (for ‘vṛṣalavṛttiḥ’), which means ‘he who has only Śūdra children;’ ‘having only Śūdra children’ being a ‘reprehensible act.’
He who sacrifices to the deities called ‘gaṇas.’ ‘Gaṇayāgas’ are well known.—(164)
Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha
‘Gaṇānām-yājakaḥ’—‘One who sacrifices to the gods; i.e., he who performs the well known Gaṇayāgas,’ (Medhātithi);—‘one who sacrifices for a group of men or friends’ (Nārāyaṇa and Nandana).
This verse is quoted in Parāśaramādhava, (Ācāra, p. 688) without comment;—and in Hemādri (Śrāddha, p. 482).
See Comparative notes for Verse 3.150.