Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi

by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550

This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:

ऋषयः पितरो देवा भूतान्यतिथयस्तथा ।
आशासते कुटुम्बिभ्यस्तेभ्यः कार्यं विजानता ॥ ८० ॥

ṛṣayaḥ pitaro devā bhūtānyatithayastathā |
āśāsate kuṭumbibhyastebhyaḥ kāryaṃ vijānatā || 80 ||

Sages, Pitṛs, gods, elementals and guests have expectations from family-men; one who knows should fulfil (one’s duty) towards them.’—(80)


Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):

These ‘have expectations from family-men,’—i.e., seek to obtain presents from them. ‘Expectation’ means wishing for help and benefits.

For this reason, one should fulfil towards them—the gods, &c.—all that is enjoined, in the shape of offerings, &c. ‘One who knows’—the ordinances of the scriptures.

Family’ stands for wife.

It is not right to disappoint the hopes cherished by even an ordinary man, what to say of the gods, etc.? This is a praise of the ‘sacrifices.’—(80)


Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha

This verse is quoted in Vīramitrodaya (Āhnika, p. 392).


Comparative notes by various authors

Baudhāyana (2.6.35).—‘When he is horn, the Brāhmaṇa is beset with three debts; he repays that to the sages, by means of religious studentship, that to the gods, by means of sacrifice, that to the Pitṛs, by means of offspring. There are innumerable debt-contracts; the three Vedas, religious studentship, begetting of children, śrāddha, austerity, and sacrifices,—one who performs all this, from him passes off all impurity.’

Viṣṇu (59.29).—[Reproduces Manu.]

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