Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi

by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550 | ISBN-13: 9788120811553

This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:

परीवादात् खरो भवति श्वा वै भवति निन्दकः ।
परिभोक्ता कृमिर्भवति कीटो भवति मत्सरी ॥ २०१ ॥

parīvādāt kharo bhavati śvā vai bhavati nindakaḥ |
paribhoktā kṛmirbhavati kīṭo bhavati matsarī || 201 ||

Through censure one becomes an ass, and the defamer becomes a dog; he who lives on him becomes a worm, and he who is jealous becomes an insect.—(201)

 

Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):

This is a statement commendatory of what has been enjoined in the foregoing verses. Hence it has to be explained as follows:—

Through cenmre’;—i.e., by listening to the censuring of his Teacher—‘one becomes an ass’; the ablative being taken either as denoting cause, or as having the force of the participle; parīvādāt being construed as ‘parīvādam śrutvā,’ ‘having listened to censuring.’

Defamer,’—the person listening to defamation is figuratively called ‘defamer just as one preparing meat has been called the ‘Killer’ of the animal. As for the act of defaming itself, the prohibition of this becomes naturally implied by the prohibition of hearing it.

One who lives upon’;—he who supports himself on what he receives from his Teacher; or one who behaves ill-mannerly towards him.

One who is jealous’;—who does not brook the rise and advancement of his Teacher and burns within (at its sight).

The two latter have not been spoken of before this; hence what is said in regard to these is to be regarded as direct injunction.

Parīvāda’ and ‘parivāda,’ both forms—with long as well as with the short ī—are correct, according to Pāṇini, 6.3.122.—(201)

 

Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha

Paribhoktā’—‘He who lives upon the Teacher’ (Medhātithi);—‘he who eats, without the Teacher’s permission, the best food obtained by begging’ (Nārāyaṇa and Nandana).

The verse is quoted in Madanapārijāta (p. 107) where ‘paribhoktā’ is explained as ‘one who makes use of the Teacher’s wealth, without his permission’;—also in Vīramitrodaya (Saṃskāra, p. 491), which also explains ‘paribhoktā’ as ‘one who lives upon the Teacher’s property, without his permission.’

Medhātithi (P. 169,1. 16)—‘Samskartā...ghātakaḥ’—This is a clear reference to Manu 5.51—

anumantā viśasitā nihantā krayavikrayī |
saṃskartā copahartā ca khādakaśceti ghātakāḥ ||

This verse is quoted in Saṃskāramayūkha (p. 42), which explains ‘paribhoktā’ as one who eats food without presenting it to the Teacher;—and in Smṛticandrikā (Saṃskāra, p. 120) as forbidding the decrying of the Teacher by the Pupil himself; it explains ‘paribhoktā’ as ‘one who makes use of the Teacher’s property without his permission.’

 

Comparative notes by various authors

(verses 200-201)

See Comparative notes for Verse 2.200.

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