by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550
This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...
Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:
मातुलांश्च पितृव्यांश्च श्वशुरान् ऋत्विजो गुरून् ।
असावहमिति ब्रूयात् प्रत्युत्थाय यवीयसः ॥ १३० ॥
mātulāṃśca pitṛvyāṃśca śvaśurān ṛtvijo gurūn |
asāvahamiti brūyāt pratyutthāya yavīyasaḥ || 130 ||
One should rise and say ‘here (so and so) I am,’ to such maternal uncles, paternal uncles, fathers-in-law and superiors as happen to be younger.—(130)
Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):
The plural number in the word ‘superiors’ indicates that this word does not stand for those superior persons that are mentioned in the present verse; it is meant to be a generic name, standing for persons superior in the point of wealth, etc., as mentioned by Gautama (in 6.20).
These when they are ‘younger’—whose age is lower than that of the nephew, etc.
‘Here l am’—indicates the name of the accoster; the term ‘I’ being meant to come after the name.
When the said persons have arrived, one should rise to meet them and accost them in the manner here prescribed. The present direction prohibits the use of the vocative term ‘bhoḥ,’ ‘sir,’ in the greeting. Gautama also has said—‘There should be rising to meet; these are not to be saluted.’ (6.9).—(130)
Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha
‘Gurūn’—‘Superiors, in point of wealth, &c.’ (Medhātithi);—‘those venerable on account of learning and austerities (Kullūka and Rāghavānanda);—‘the husband of a maternal aunt and so forth, but not those more learned than himself’ (Govindarāja);—‘the teacher and the rest’ (Nandana);—‘Subteachers’ (Nārāyaṇa).
Medhātithi (p. 133, 1. 27)—‘Gautamīye’—This refers to Gautama 6.9, which reads—
ṛtvikśvaśurapitṛṣyamātulānāṃ tu yavīyasāmprasyutthānamanabhivādyāḥ (?)
Ibid. (p. 133, 1. 28)—‘Bhāgineyādeḥ’—See Gautama, 6.20—
cf. also Manu, 2.136.
This verse is quoted in Vīramitrodaya (Saṃskāra, p. 456), where it is explained that the term ‘gurūn’ stands for those who are possessed of superior learning and other qualifications.
Comparative notes by various authors
Gautama-Dharmasūtra (6.9).—‘One should rise to welcome the priest, the father-in-law, the paternal uncle, and the maternal uncle; but they should not be saluted, if they are junior in age.’
Baudhāyana-Dharmasūtra (2.46).—‘The priest, the father-in-law, the paternal uncle and the maternal uncle, when they are junior in age,—one should accost after rising from the seat.’
Āpastamba-Dharmasūtra (1.14.11).—‘One should rise and accost,—or silently embrace—the priest, the father-in-law, the paternal uncle and the maternal uncle, if they are junior in age.’
Vaśiṣṭha-Smṛti (13.13)—(reproduces the words of Āpastamba).
Viṣṇu-Smṛti (32.4).—‘In the case of the father-in-law, the paternal uncle and the maternal uncle, if these are junior in age—salutation consists in rising to welcome.’