Mandukya Upanishad (Madhva commentary)

by Srisa Chandra Vasu | 1909 | 15,464 words | ISBN-13: 9789332869165

The English translation of the Mandukya Upanishad including the commentary of Madhva called the Bhasya. The describe the secret meaning of Om as the four names and aspects of the Lord (Vishva, Taijasa, Prajna and Turiya). This Upanishad is associated with the Atharva Veda and contains tweelve verses although Madhva reads the Gaudapada’s Karikas as ...

4. (U11). The Prājña, the Lord of deep sleep, is designated by the letter “M”. This is the third aspect. He is called “M”, because He is Miti or carrier of the Soul into the inmost; or because He is Apīti or destroyer of all external consciousness. Verily he pervades all and destroys all sorrow, who knows thus.—29.


[Minoti, measures. He pervades with his rays of consciousness all objects and Jīvas, though atomic in size, knows all the objects that exist within the cosmic egg, but not those which are beyond it. Jīvas are like suns, and know everything within the egg through their rays of consciousness, as the sun pervades everything through His rays.]

Madhva’s commentary called the Bhāṣya:

The word “miti” comes from a root meaning “carrying into the interior”! (By His embrace, He carries all Jīvas into Himself).

(Having explained the above three Upaniṣad verses in his own words, Śrī Madhva now quotes Brahma Tarka in support of his interpretation).

We find in the Brahma Tarka the following: “The Lord is called adhyakṣara because He is greater than all, and is eternal, and since all the parts of the Lord are equally infinite and full, He is called adhimātra (Ho whose every portion is an infinity). The word mātrā means part. The Viṣṇu is called Oṃkāra, because He is symbolised by the syllable Oṃ. The first letter of Om, i.e., “a” suggests āpti, the Fetcher, because Viśva brings all objects to the Jīva. It is also called because it has a beginning (ādi), since Viśva arises either from Prājña or Taijasa. Though the Lord is beginningdess, yet in this sense He is said to have a beginning. The worshipper of Viśva gets mukti consisting of the True, Knowledge and Bliss: and attains all objects of desires. The Lord of dream called Taijasa is symbolised by “u”, because this letter suggests utkarṣa, namely, He who withdraws the Jīva from all objects except the mind: or because it recalls the word ubhaya, namely, He who produces a two-fold effect, i.e., withdraws the Jīva from external contacts and revives all mental or internal, impressions. He is called utkarṣa because He withdraws (uddhritya) Jīva from the misconception of identifying itself with the body and draws it (karṣati) to the sphere of dreams (which is nearer the self than the external world). This is the idea latent in the word utkarśa when applied to Taijasa. He who knows Taijasa thus, gets eternal wisdom, by separating himself from his body and there is no break in his knowledge; such a person becomes as an arbitrator or moderator or madhyastha or remaining in middle among the Mukta Jīvas even, because of the intensity of his love for all and freedom from all faults of partiality, etc. The Prājña is called Miti, because He makes Jīvas enter into Himself, for mānam means making a thing to enter within. Prājña is called mānam because He draws in the Jīvas within Himself, and overpowers their consciousness. He is called Apīti also because He destroys all sorrows. The knower of Prājña likewise, when liberated, pervades all, and destroys all sorrows of others, etc. The pervasion of this liberated Jīva is through his rays; and though all Jīvas are atomic and so an atom cannot pervade another atom, yet the Mukta Jīva is said to be all-pervading, because by his light (vibration) he pervades all, i.e., by his knowledge of all he pervades, as if, all. This pervasion of the Mukta human Jīvas stops with the shell of the cosmic egg, he cannot go beyond that: (He pervades everything within the cosmic egg). Beyond the cosmic egg, the Deva Muktas pervade with their light. Thus in the state of Mukti, all objects within the egg are known to the human Jīva: they are within the scope of his knowledge.”

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