Mandukya Upanishad (Gaudapa Karika and Shankara Bhashya)

by Swami Nikhilananda | 1949 | 115,575 words | ISBN-13: 9788175050228

This is verse 4.82 of the Mandukya Karika English translation, including commentaries by Gaudapada (Karika), Shankara (Bhashya) and a glossary by Anandagiri (Tika). Alternate transliteration: Māṇḍūkya-upaniṣad 4.82, Gauḍapāda Kārikā, Śaṅkara Bhāṣya, Ānandagiri Ṭīkā.

Sanskrit text, IAST transliteration and English translation

सुखमाव्रियते नित्यं दुःखं विव्रियते सदा ।
यस्य कस्य च धर्मस्य ग्रहेण भगवानसौ ॥ ८२ ॥

sukhamāvriyate nityaṃ duḥkhaṃ vivriyate sadā |
yasya kasya ca dharmasya graheṇa bhagavānasau || 82 ||

82. On account of the mind apprehending single objects, the Bliss (i.e., the real essence of the Self) always remains concealed and misery comes to the surface. Therefore the ever-effulgent Lord (is not realised though taught again and again by Scriptures and teachers).

Shankara Bhashya (commentary)

How is it that the people, at large, do not realise Ātman, which is the Supreme Reality, though It is again and again thus explained? To this the following reply is given:—On1 account of the mind apprehending through attachment, single objects of the world of duality, the blissful nature of Ātman is easily covered. The reason for this concealment is only the perception of duality. There is no other cause for it. Moreover, misery2 is brought to the surface. The knowledge of the Supreme Reality is extremely hard to attain. The Lord, the non-dual Ātman, the effulgent Being, though again and again taught by the Vedānta Scriptures and the teachers, is not therefore comprehended. The Śruti also says, “One who speaks of Ātman is looked upon with wonder and he who has attained and who has realised it, is equally an object of wonder.”

Anandagiri Tika (glossary)

1 On account of, etc.—That is to say, people on account of their prejudices associate Ātman with various illusory ideas. Ātman is free from all ideas (Kalpanā). See next Kārikā.

2 Misery—In reality there is no misery. Bliss alone, which is the characteristic of Ātman, exists. But misery is experienced when the Blissful Ātman is not known.

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