by Prasanna Kumar Acharya | 1933 | 201,051 words
This page describes “the jain images (jaina-lakshana)” which is Chapter 55 of the Manasara (English translation): an encyclopedic work dealing with the science of Indian architecture and sculptures. The Manasara was originaly written in Sanskrit (in roughly 10,000 verses) and dates to the 5th century A.D. or earlier.
1-2. The compilation of Mānasāra with regard to the description and measurement of the Buddhist (sugata) and the Jain (jaina) images, will be briefly stated now.
5. The māna is said to be the measurement (of length) from the head (lit., limit) to the big toe (feet).
6. The pramāṇa is said to be the measurement of breadth; and the parimāṇa is the measurement of girth (circumference).
7. The lambamāna is the (perpendicular) measurement by the plumb-lines, and the unmāna is the measurement of height (depth, thickness, lit., measurement downwards).
8. And the upamāna is the measurement of interspace: these are the measurements of an idol consisting of the height, etc.
9. These are the six kinds of measurement with which the limbs (of an image) should be measured.
10. The rules and description of the absolute (ādimāna, lit;, first) measurement are stated here in detail.
11-16. The measurement of length in comparison with the length of the building, the measurement of height in comparison with the adytum (cella, sanctum), the measurement of height in comparison with the measurement of the door and the base, the measurement in cubit, the measurement of height in the tāla system, the measurement of height in aṅgulas, the measurement of height in comparison with the (height of the) worshipper, and the measurement in comparison with the main (principal) idol: these are the principal units of measurement in comparison with nine (principal) objects; each of these consists of three types, namely, the largest, etc, (i.e., including the intermediate and the smallest); this is the compilation (of Mānasāra).
17. The four measurements, beginning from the measurement in comparison with the main edifice, should be used for those who want enjoyment, salvation (beatitude), and wealth,
18. The measurements in cubit and according to the tāla system are conducive to enjoyment and salvation.
19. The measurement in aṅgula is used for those who want salvation.
20 The measurement in comparison with the master and the (principal) idol is known to be for all success.
21. The workers (sculptors) consider (follow) these measuruments as the original (systems) on account of their being based on the measure of the body.
22. Each one of those measurements consists of nine kinds which will be stated below.
23-24. The length of the edifice (temple) being divided into nine parts, each of these may be the height of the idol, stationary or movable; the nine kinds consist of three in each of the three sizes, namely, the smallest, etc.
25. In the largest type, the height of the idol should be equal to the adytum (garbhageha); in the smallest type, it should be one part out of the nine parts (into which the central hall is divided.
26. With regard to the height and the width of the door, the nine kinds of measurement (for the idol) should be as before.
27. (With regard to the base) the nine kinds of height consist of (three in each of) the smallest, (the intermediate, and the largest sizes); it is largest when it is equal to the base.
28. (With regard to the cubit measurement) the nine kinds should begin from one cubit and end at nine cubits, (the increment being by one), and consist of three in each of the three sizes, namely, the smallest, etc.
29. (With regard to the tāla measurement), the nine kinds should begin from one tāla and end at nine tāla.
30-33. With regard to the height of the worshipper, the nine kinds (of height for the idol) should consist of (three in each of) the smallest, (the intermediate), and the largest types, and the nine kinds of height of the idol, stationary, or movable, ending at the smallest, (the intermediate, and the largest) sizes, should extend to the full length of the worshipper, to the end of the hair (on the forehead), the tip of the nose, the end of the chin, the end (lit., limit) of the arm, the breast, the heart, the navel, and the sex organ.
34-36. The measurement in comparison with the principal idol is called the utsava height; (of the three kinds of the utsava height), the largest one should be equal to the height of the principal idol, the intermediate one should be three-fourths of it, and the smallest one should be a half of it: these are said to be the three kinds of the utsava height.
37-39. As an alternative the same height being divided into sixteen parts, the nine kinds of the utsava height, consisting of the smallest, (the intermediate), and the largest sizes, should (begin from sixteen parts and) end at twenty-five parts, the increment being by one.
40-43. As another alternative the nine kinds of the utsava height, consisting of the largest, (the intermediate), and the smallest sizes, should extend to the end of the hair (on the forehead) of the principal idol, the end of the eye-brow, the eye, the tip of the nose, the chin, the arm, the breast, the heart, and the navel.
44. The measurement with the half (unit) of the utsava height is called the kautuka height.
45-46. The nine kinds of the kautuka height consisting of the smallest, (the intermediate), and the largest sizes should begin from one part out of eight (nine) into which that (? utsava) height is divided, and and at nine, the increment being by one.
48-50. Any one selected out of the assemblage (of nine units) being divided into one hundred parts should be increased by one to one hundred and thirty parts, and the auspicious āya, etc., should be considered with regard to both the stationary and the movable idols.
52-63. The finger of the principal idol, the māna finger, and the mātra finger: these are the three kinds of aṅgula (finger) measures.
54-55. The height of the principal idol being divided into ninety-six parts, each of these parts is considered as an aṅgula (finger) of the principal idol; with this aṅgula unit the utsava height should be measured.
56. Eight times the width of a yava (barley corn) make one aṅgula; this is known as the māna (standard) aṅgula (of three-fourths inch).
57-58. The mātra aṅgula is said to be the (measurement of the) length (and) width of the middle joint of the middle finger of the right hand of the master.
59-60. This aṅgula is of nine kinds consisting of three in each of the three sizes, the intermediate being leas than the largest of eight parts by one, and the smallest being three-fourths of the largest (i.e., of six parts).
61. The stationary and the movable idols should be measured in the māna (standard) aṅgula.
62. The idol for personal worship should be measured in the mātra aṅgula.
63-64. The measurement in the deha (body) aṅgula (i.e., finger of the idol or the master) should begin from eleven aṅgulas, and end at one hundred and thirty-three aṅgulas, the increment being by two aṅgulas.
65-66. The measurement in the māna aṅgula should begin from nine aṅgulas, and end at one hundred and twenty-three aṅgulas, the increment being by two aṅgulas.
67-68. The measurement in the mātra aṅgula should begin from seven aṅgulas and end at one hundred and thirteen aṅgulas, the increment being by two aṅgulas.
69. The jāti and the other distinctions with regard to (all) the aṅgulas should be left out.
70. The best artist should, however, apply the tests of the six formulas, namely, the āya, etc., with regard to the aṅgula (measure).
71. The characteristic features of the stationary and the movable idols (of the Jains) will be described here (below).
72. It should have two arms and two eyes, and the head should be clean shaven (?), and there should be the top knot (? nimbus).
73. It should be in a straight, erect, or siting posture.
74. The legs should be uniformly straight, and the two long (?suspending) hands should be in the same posture.
75-76. It (the idol) should be in the sitting posture, the two feet being placed on the lotus seat in a straight pose, and it (the whole image) being in a stiff attitude and bearing a meditative look on the supremo soul.
77. The right and the left hands should be placed upwards over the face.
78. It should be placed upon a throne in an. erect or sitting posture.
79. At its (throne’s) top should be a pinnacle (niryūha) and a crocodile arch.
80. Above that should be made the ornamental (kalpa,) tree, together with the royal elephant and such other objects.
81. It (the idol) should be accompanied by Nārada and other sages as well as the assembly of gods and goddesses in a praying attitude.
83. It should also be made being worshipped by Nāgendra (serpent-king) and others, and the lords of the quarters, together with the Yakṣas.
85. The Jain deities should be placed below the fourth or third heaven (antarikṣa, lit., sky).
86-88. Crystal (transparent?), white, red, yellow, and bright greenish: these should be the complexions of the five groups? of deities, namely, the Siddhas, the Sugandhas, the Jinas, the Arhatas, and the Pārśvakas respectively.
89. The limbs of the (Jain) deities should be measured in the largest type of the ten tāla system.
90. The twenty-four (Jain) Tīrthaṅkaras (saints) should also be measured in the (same) ten tāla system.
91. There should be no ornaments, and no clothes on any part of the body (of the Jain images) which is (naturally) beautiful.
Thus in the Mānsāra, the science of architecture, the fifty-fifth chapter, entitled: “The description of the Jain images.”
Footnotes and references:
Padma is a name given by the Tāntrikas to the six divisions of the upper part of the body called Cakras.
According to the Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa (Part 1, second anuṣaṅga[?]pāda, chapter 7, verse 97) and the Suprabhedāgama (XXX-22) tāla implies the distant between the tips of the fully stretched thumb and the middle finger; but here in the Mānasāra as well as in the Matsya-purāṇa (chapter 258, verse 19) it implies the sense of the length of the face (up to the top of the head) and has been used as the unit for sculptural measure particularly along the plumb lines. It admits of ten or twelve varieties as the total length (height) of the body becomes from one to twelve times the length of the face.
See note 1, page 542, and the writer’s Dictionary, page 600.
See note 1, page 518. and Chap. LXV, and the writer’s Dictionary, pages 228-240.