by Prasanna Kumar Acharya | 1933 | 201,051 words
This page describes “the crowns (mauli) and coronation (abhisheka)” which is Chapter 49 of the Manasara (English translation): an encyclopedic work dealing with the science of Indian architecture and sculptures. The Manasara was originaly written in Sanskrit (in roughly 10,000 verses) and dates to the 5th century A.D. or earlier.
1-4. Young girls and other maids together with an assemblage of wealth and jewels, śali corn, land, houses, servants, conveyances (vehicles and horses) should always be offered to the chief of the architects by the good master with his hands much in the posture of receiving boons.
6-8. If the master do not do the proper respect (to the artists) out of one reason or another (lit., combination of reasons, yoga, also fraud) he will fall down as long as the earth and the moon exist; but if he does the aforesaid respect he becomes like a king and attains all prosperity, desirable things, and success.
9-11. If the hearts of the artists be gratified the worshipper (i.e., the master) will attain his desirable fruits; but if the architects become dissatisfied (at the gifts) all prosperity will be ruined; the master should, therefore, try always to please the chief of the architects (in particular).
13-16. In respect of form (lit., shape) and measure they (the crowns) are classified into the Jaṭā, Mauli, Kirīṭa, Karaṇḍa, Śirastraka, Kuntala, Keśabandha, Dhammilla, Alaka, Cūḍaka, and Makuṭa; and the three kinds of (plainer) diadems are known to be the Patrapaṭṭa, the Ratnapaṭṭa, and the Puṣpapaṭṭa.
19. The Karaṇḍa, and the Makuṭa are fit for the inferior gods.
20. The Jaṭā, the Mauli, the Makuṭa, and the Kuntala are suitable for Manonmanyā (Rati, the goddess of love).
22. As an alternative (i.e., general rule) the Karaṇḍa and the Makuṭa may be fit for all the female deities (Śakti).
24. The Karaṇḍa is (fit) for the king Narendra, and Śirastraka for the Pārṣṇika.
25. As an alternative (i.e., general rule) the Karaṇḍa and the Makuṭa may be fit for the Cakravartin and the other kings (mentioned above).
26-27. The Patrapaṭṭa is fit for (the class of kings known as) the Paṭṭadhara, the Ratnapaṭṭa for the Pārṣṇika, and the Puṣpapaṭṭa for the Paṭṭabhāj: this has been said by the ancient (authorities).
28. The Puṣpamālya (flower garland instead of a diadem) is prescribed for the Prāhāraka and the Astragrāha (classes of kings).
29. The Kuntala and the Makuṭa should be fit for the queens of the Cakravartin (class of universal monarchs).
30. The Keśabandhana should be fib for the queens of the Adhirāja and the Narendra (classes of kings).
31-32. The Dhammilla and the Makuṭa are said to be fit for the queens of the classes of kings known as the Pārṣṇika, the Paṭṭadhara, the Maṇḍaleśa, and the Paṭṭabhāj.
33. The Alaka and the Cūḍaka are fit for the queens of the (kings known as the) Prāhāraka, and the Astragrāha.
34. The height of the crown (in all cases) should be equal to, twice, or thrice the length of the face.
35. (The height of the crown) of Brahmā and Rudra should be twice the face less one-fourth.
36. (The height of the crown) of the other gods also should be less than twice the face by one-fourth or one-half.
37. (The height of the crowns) of the Kinnaras and the Yakṣakas should be equal to their face, or one-and-one-half of it.
38. (The height of the crowns) of all the female deities should be twice their face.
39. The width (lit., length) of all the Makuṭa (crowns) should extend along the extremity of the hair (on the forehead) from ear to ear (lit., from one earring to the other).
40. The width of the crowns (lit., ornaments, of the head) at the bottom should be equal to the length of the face.
41-42. The width of the Makuṭa (crowns) at the top should be less than that (i.e„ the width at the bottom) by one-eighth or one-sixteenth, the length of the crest extending from the upper extremity of the middle portion.
43-44. The width of the Karaṇḍa crown at the top is said to be one-half or one-third of the width at the bottom.
45. All the crowns should be made gradually tapering from bottom to top.
47. (The height of the crown) of the Mahārāja should be less than that height by one-sixteenth part.
48. (The height of the crown) of the king called the Narendra should be less by two parts (out of the sixteen parts).
49. The height of the crown of the Pārṣṇika (class of kings) is said to be a half (of this height of sixteen parts).
50-51. The height of the Makuṭa crowns of the queens of the Cakravartin and the Adhirāja (classes of kings) should be equal to the girth of the head, or three-fourths or one-half thereof.
52. (The height of the crowns) of all the other queens is said by the wise (architects) to be equal to the length of their face (between the ears).
53. The height of the Dhammilla and the Alaka crowns should be less (than that of the Makuṭa,? the length of the face) by one-fourth, or one-hall.
54. The expert (architect) should make the measurement of the remaining (crowns) as said before.
55-56. The height of the Paṭṭa (diadem or turban) should be one-third of the girth of the head: such should be (the diadem) of the Paṭṭadhara (class of kings) whose diadem (paṭṭa) should cover the head.
57. The height of the diadem (paṭṭa) of the king Maṇḍaleśvara should be one-fourth (of the girth of his head).
58-59. The height of the diadem (paṭṭa) of the king called the Paṭṭabhāj should be one-sixth of the girth of his head.
60. Thus is described the measurement of all (the crowns); their ornaments will be stated here.
61-66. It (the Makuṭa crown of the Cakravartin) should be furnished with garlands made of ten leaves (rows or strings) of gold and other metals; there should be five hundred, one thousand, two thousand or two thousand and five hundred niṣkas; the number of gold pieces (in the crown) is stated to be of three varieties from the smallest to (i.e., including the intermediate, and) the largest; they are stated to be (distinguished) in connection with the four kinds of coronation of the Cakravartin (class of monarchs), namely, the Prāpta (i.e., Prathama), Maṅgala, Vīra, and Vijaya.
67. The number of gold pieces in the Makuṭa crown of the queen should be a half of those (in the king’s).
68-69. The number of gold pieces in the Makuṭa crown of the Adhirāja is stated to be up to two thousand, classified as before into three varieties.
70-73. For the Makuṭa crown of the Narendra (class of kings) the number of gold pieces in the smallest (the intermediate) and the largest (crowns) should begin from five hundred and end at one thousand and five hundred, the increment being by five hundred; for (this class of) kings in particular they (those gold pieces) should be attached to the fillet (paṭṭa) around the head (bera).
74-76. The number of gold pieces in the Śirastra crown of the Pārṣṇika (class of kings) is stated to begin from four hundred gold pieces (niṣka) and end at twelve hundred, the increment being by four hundred, there being three series in each of the smallest and the other (the intermediate and the largest) types.
77-79. The number of gold pieces in the Paṭṭa crown of the Paṭṭadhara (class of kings) in the smallest, (the intermediate), and the largest types should begin from three hundred gold pieces (niṣka) and end at nine hundred, the increment being by three hundred.
80-82. The number of gold pieces in the Paṭṭa crown of the king Maṇḍaleśa in the three types ending at (i.e., including the smallest, the intermediate and) the largest type is said to begin from two hundred gold pieces and end at six hundred, the increment being by two hundred.
83-85. The number of gold pieces to be attached to the Paṭṭa crown of the Paṭṭabhāj (class of) kings in the smallest, (the intermediate) and the largest types should begin from one hundred gold pieces and end at three hundred, the increment being by one hundred.
86-87. The height of the Makuṭa crown of the kings from top to bottom should extend to the extremity of their hair, and the height of the crest jewel thereof should be made in addition above the former (height).
88-91. The Jaṭā, the Makuṭa, the Keśabandha, and the Kuntala should be triangular (tripuṭa) in plan; the Kirīṭa and the Mauli should be somewhat like the ear; the Karaṇḍa should resemble the beak of the peacock; the Śirastra should look like the bubble; the Dhavimilla should be shaped like the creeper; and the Alaka, and the Cūḍa should be made extending from the extremity of the hair.
92-94. The height of the crown of the kings being divided into twenty-six parts, the height of the ploughshare-like fillet (phālapaṭṭa) should be five parts, the crest (cūḍa) a half of that (i.e., two-and-a-half parts); the height of the ear (pura) should be five parts, and the height of (lit., width) of the bottom (i.e., lower portion) six parts.
95-99. The height of the crowns of the gods being divided into twenty parts, the (height of the) side ear (pārśvapūrita) should be nine parts, and the height (lit., breadth) of the beak (tuṇḍa) six parts; the front (upper) fillet (agrapaṭṭa) should be one part and a-half, and the threefold band (vetraka) three-fourths part; the fillet (paṭṭa) at the upper region should be half a part, and the three-fold band above one-fourth part; above that the lotus (padma, cyma) should be made of one part, and the height of the bud (kuḍmala,) of two parts.
100. This (height) should cover the distance between the base of the crown and the crowning fillet, and above that should be made the crest jewel.
101. The height of the crest jewel (śikhāmaṇi) is said to extend from the band (vetra) to the bud (kuḍmala).
102-103. Along the height of the lower band one part should be covered with garlands of jewels, (and) all the circular members should be discreetly fitted thereto.
104. All the other regions should be furnished with the wave-shaped mouldings.
105. The interior of the wave-shaped mouldings should be adorned with flowers and jewels.
106. The two parts of the ear (pūrita) should be adorned with the carving of crocodiles.
108. The jewel band (ratnabandha) should be made in the front, and on the outside it should be surrounded with creepers (vallikā).
109. In the region of the face part of the crocodile should be carved the garland of creepers (valli) together with its projection.
110. At the front and back there should be a continuous string of crocodiles.
111. The band portion of the (Mauli) crown should be ornamented with garlands of pearl (looking) like creepers.
112-113. The height of the front (forehead) fillet (paṭṭa) being divided into four parts, the fillet-band (paṭṭabandha) should be one part (which should be) adorned with all jewels.
114. Below that the half-moon (orescent) above the forehead should be adorned with garlands of jewels.
115. The upper portions of the ears should be furnished with ear-leaves and ear-flowers.
116. The garlands suspending therefrom should be ornamented with all jewels.
117. The crest jewels should be engraved in the portion below the middle of the earring (pūri).
118. The four ear-rings (pūri) should be made above the two ears and at their (two) sides.
119. The back ear-ring (pūri) should be made in the upper portion of the back of the head.
120-122. The disc (cakra)-like ornaments should be made at the middle and bottom of the back (of the head); the width of the head-disc should be one-third the girth of the head; it (the disc) should be made (perfectly) circular, and all jewels should be engraved thereon.
123. Such should be the crowns (known as) the Kirīṭa and the Makuṭa; they should be adorned with all ornaments.
124. There should be an upper band in the crowns (known as) the Jaṭā and the Cūḍa, and in their forepart should be furnished the fillets, etc.
125. The crest jewels should be made in the middle, and the garlands should be suspended along the sides.
126. The intervals of the Jaṭā (matted hair) should be adorned with flowers, and the rest should be made as before.
127. In the very same way should be made the (crown known as the) Keśabandha.
127-129. With regard to the Mauli crown there should be a pretty band in. the middle, above that should be made the surrounding (lit., bee-shaped) locks of hair in rows; the rest should be made as before, and it should be adorned with all ornaments.
130. In the very same way should be made the Kuntala, and it should be furnished with the middle bands.
131. The bees should be carved all over and the peculiarities thereof should be as before.
132. The crest jewel should be made over the top of the head, and therefrom should rise the bad (kuḍmala).
133. The total breadth of the buds should cover one-third of the width at the forepart.
135. Round the width there should be three, four, or five rows (valaya, lit., bracelets) of bands furnished with lotuses.
136. As said before, the upper portion should be adorned with bud ornaments, but there should be no garlands.
137. The rest should be made as before; thus are described the Karaṇḍa and the Śirastraka (crowns).
138-139. The width at the forepart of the Dhammilla crown should be one-third of the girth of the head; the width at its bottom should be three-fifths of the width (at the top).
140. It should be furnished with three-fold bracelets, but there should be made no crest jewel.
141. All jewels should be engraved thereon, but there should not be any ear-rings (karṇa-pūraka).
142. But there should be furnished the crest (of the head), and the rest should be made as before.
143. In the very same way should be ma le the Alaka and the Cūḍaka crowns; bub there should be a jewel band at the base.
144-145. The width at the top, bottom, and middle is said to be uniform, (or) the width at the upper portion of the height (i.e., the top) should be one-third of that (at the base).
146. It should be adorned with the nine gems, and the rest should be made as before.
147. Its general features should be made of fillets resembling the ploughshare (phālapaṭṭa).
148. It should be furnished with leaves and jewels, etc.; this is known as the Patrapaṭṭa (leaf-diadem).
149. The same when adorned with the nine gems (instead of the ploughshare fillets) is (called) the Ratnapaṭṭa (jewel-diadem).
150. The same when furnished with various flowers is known as the Puṣpapaṭṭa (flower-diadem).
151. The aṣṭamaṅgalas (lit., eight auspicious things) should be attached to the crest of all (the crowns).
155-166. In the same way the crowns of the kings being furnished with a neck-fillet (galapaṭṭa) would be suitable for the (respective) queens of all the kings.
157. All the crowns should be adorned with all ornaments.
158-159. The height of all the flower-crowns (Puṣpamakuṭa, i.e., paṭṭa) should be equal to the girth of the head; three-fourths or one-half thereof should be adorned with all flowers.
160. There should be four corners on the four aides, or they should be circular (round) in shape.
161. They should be shaped like the Makuṭa, the Karaṇḍa, or the Kirīṭa (crowns).
162. Similarly crowns (Mukuṭa) should be made properly (lit., according to the rules) without any flowers.
163. In case of the kings (Paṭṭadhara and Paṭṭahhāj) who put on the Paṭṭa diadems, the flower-fillet should be made over a half (of their crowns).
164. In case of the other (petty) kings, a garland should be worn (instead of a crown) on the head.
165-166. The Prāpta (i.e., Prathama, first), the Maṅgala (auspicious), the Vīra (heroic), and the Vijaya (victory): these are said to be the four kinds of coronation [viz., abhiṣeka] for the Cakravartin (class of the universal monarchs).
167-168. The flower-coronation (puṣpābhiṣeka) of the three descendent kings (i.e., the Mahārāja, the Narendra, and the Pārṣṇika) also (i.e., in addition to the Cakravartin)1 should be performed after the first coronation according to the rules of the science (śāstra) stated before.
169-171. During the coronation ceremonies of the kings the chief architect (sthapati) in particular together with the assistants (sthāpaka), the Brahmans, and the wise should perform the preliminary rites (aṅkurārpaṇa, lit., sewing the seed), and carry out all other ceremonies ending at the concluding purification (adhivāsa).
172. After this above-mentioned purification (adhivāsa) ceremony the filling up of the pitchers with water should be taken, up.
173-174. The king (to be anointed) should be seated on the throne in the north of the sacrificial pavilion (maṇdapa) and then the anointing proper (coronation) should be commenced.
175. The pitchers should be filled with water from rivers or seas and also with curdled milk.
176-177. The preceptor and the chief architect (sthapati) should finish the ceremonies of anointing with water amidst the chanting of the Atharvan and the Sāman hymns, and the other scriptural (āgama) incantations (mantra).
181. The white sandal (solution), musk, and saffron should be besmeared over his body.
182. He should then be adorned with the sacred thread, the upper garment (uttarīya) and all other ornaments.
183. The coronation hall should be decorated with all ornaments.
184. The preceptor architect (sthapati-guru) should get the crown and the lion-throne brought down there.
185. The central theatre should be sprinkled with the five products of the cow (pañcagavya).
186. The leading priests should then hold up the crown.
189. The king should sit together with the queen on his left side.
190-192. On an auspicious moment of good constellation of stars, both the chief architect (sthapati) and bis assistant (sthāpaka) should place the crown adorned with jewels on the head of the king, amidst the pronouncement of benediction (svasti) and all other auspicious sounds.
193-194. The garlands made of grass (durvā) and the madhuka flowers should be placed over the chest and round the arms; a point should be marked on the forehead with curdled milk, and the eyes should be adorned with the dye (añjana).
195. Afterwards he should be presented with the (holy vapour of the burning of) incense, and lamp, and with the holy rice.
197. The ceremony of waving lights (nirājana) (before the king) should be performed according to the rules of the scripture (śāstra) by the old experienced and learned ministers.
198-199. After the pronouncement of benediction by those well-wishing aged people, and by the auspicious women the liquid turmeric mixed with raw rice grain (akṣata) should be sprinkled (over the king and his consort) by the twice born.
200. After this the king should mount up the great elephant (airāvata).
201-204. The lustre of the pearls and other jewels on the crown of the king mounted on the back of the elephant should illuminate all sides; and the rays of his moon-like face with the fillet (paṭṭa) on the forehead should brighten all the directions.
205-206. He (the king) should be fanned from all sides with the royal chowries and be attended on by the pretty women all round him.
207-208. He should be also shaded with the four (royal) umbrellas, furnished with leaves (pallava) and the mirror, etc., made of jewels.
209-210. He should be surrounded with banners, flags, and pitchers made of gold.
211-212. Afterwards (i.e., with such a gorgeous procession) ho should ride round the city amidst singing, dancing, and all other musics.
213. They (the procession) should thus circumambulate the city with all auspicious proclamations.
214. At the time of entering into the palace the kings should be blind-folded.
215-216. Corns, rice pudding, milk, cloths, earth, and all auspicious and inauspicious things should be placed (lit., thrown) before him by the wise man (? architect preceptor).
217-219. The learned man will ascertain whether there would follow a famine or plenty of things, by observing which thing is touched by the (blind-folded) king proceeding unassisted with his hands; he should also ascertain the strength (prowess), victory, fame, and fortune (of the king himself).
220. If the rice porridge and rice, etc., be touched, there will be always an abundance of food stuff (in the kingdom).
221. If the heap of rice corn is touched by the (royal) hand there will be plenty of food.
222. If gold, iron, jewels and other precious metals be touched, it indicates that the subjects will prosper.
223. If the sword or other weapons be touched, it bespeaks of his prowess.
224. It would be unfortunate for the whole kingdom if any inauspicious things be touched by the king.
225. Silver and other things would increase (in the country) if they be touched by the king.
226-227. The Prāpta (i.e., Prathama), the Maṅgala, the Vīra and the Vijaya: these four kinds of coronations mentioned before are thus described.
228-229. All those (four) coronations are meant for all the kings. And what are known as the Kāmya (desirable), the Nitya (daily) and the Naimittika (occasional), etc., should be the installations for the gods.
230-231. All these should thus be carried, out according to the directions of the śāstra (guide books) as prescribed by the scriptures (Vedas), the traditions (Purāṇas), all the great sages headed by Mānasāra and others, and by those who are learned in the science of architecture (śilpaśāstra).
Thus in the Mānasāra, the science of architecture, the forty-ninth chapter, entitled: “The description of the crowns and coronation.”
Footnotes and references:
Compare line 11 where the recipient of the gifts is stated co be the chief (lit,, preceptor, ācārya) of the architects.
See lines 88 -91 where the shapes of these crowns are referred to.
Compare line 39; the term, bāhu, means the b?se [base?] of a right-angled triangle, here implying the distance between the ears.
Ordinarily it implies a kind of gold coin which was the currency in the Vedic period; but it may imply generally jewels although in all other places (cf. lines 67, 69, 73, 76, etc.) the terms used as synonyms of niṣka are one or the other name for gold.
It may imply the three-fold pocket, three-fold cup, three-fold leaf, threefold cavity, or three-fold casket.
The exact plane of the last two crowns are not specified; alaka means a curl of hair, and cūḍa implies the crest of a cock or peacock: these may supply the required plans.
There are the four higher classes of kings who are allowed to put on real crowns 'see the preceding lines).
Compare line 184 where the chief architect and the preceptor refer to the one and the same person, see also lines 190-191.
The figure consists of three lines of ashes.