Manasara (English translation)

by Prasanna Kumar Acharya | 1933 | 201,051 words

This page describes “the gatehouses (gopura)” which is Chapter 33a of the Manasara (English translation): an encyclopedic work dealing with the science of Indian architecture and sculptures. The Manasara was originaly written in Sanskrit (in roughly 10,000 verses) and dates to the 5th century A.D. or earlier.

Chapter 33a - The gatehouses (gopura)

1-2. The characteristic features of the gatehouses (gopura) belonging to the divine (i.e., temples) and human (i.e., residential) buildings, gathering together their essential measure, will now briefly be described in this science of (of architecture).

3-4. The measurement prescribed for the divine buildings must not be used in the human dwellings, but the measurement suitable to the human buildings may be also applicable to the divine buildings (temples).

5. The small size measurement should be employed in the small (type of) buildings, and the largo size measurement in the large buildings.

6-7. Should the reverse be done through ignorance, destruction of the structure (lit. place) and the loss of money (wealth) will be (the result); the measurement of (all) gatehouses should, therefore, be accepted and carried into effect as stated (here).

8-11. The gate house called the Dvāraśobhā (beauty of the gate) is said to be (built) at the (enclosure wall of the) first court, that called the Dvāraśālā (gate hall) in the second, that called the Dvāraprāsāda, (gate-palace) in the middle (third), that called the Dvāraharmya (gate-edifice) in the one (prākāra) added by me (i.e.,) fourth court), and that called the Mahāgopura (great gatehouse) at the enclosure wall (kuḍya) of the furthest boundary (i.e., fifth court): the architect should thus build (ṭhe gatehouses) at the entrance of compound walls.

12-13. Three, five, seven, (nine), and eleven cubits: these are said to be the five kinds of width of the (gatehouse called the) Dvāraśobhā.

14-15. The five kinds (of width) of the Dvāraśālā are said to begin from five cubits and end at thirteen cubits (the increment being by two cubits).

16-17. The five kinds of width of the Dvāraprāsāda are known to the learned to begin from seven cubits and end at fifteen cubits (the increment being by two cubits).

18-19. The (five kinds of) width of the Dvāraharmya should begin from nine cubits and end at seventeen cubits, the increment being by two cubits.

20-21. And the five kinds of width of the Mahāgopura are said to begin from eleven cubits and end at nineteen cubits (the increment being by two cubits).

22-23. In all (types of) gatehouses the length should be greater than the width by one-fourth, one-half, or three-fourths, or preferably twice that.

24-25. As an alternative, with regard to the Śobhaka (i.e., Dvāraśobhā type of gatehouses) it (ṭhe width) should be increased by two cubits to forty cubits; (and the corresponding) twenty varieties of its length (should be also increased in accordance with the aforesaid proportion) ending at thrice (lit. three times cubits of) the width.

26-27. Beginning (as before) the width of the Dvāraśālā (type of gatehouses) should be increased by two cubits up to fifty cubits, and there should be (ṭhe corresponding) twenty-five varieties of the length.

28-29. The width of the Dvāraprāsāda, should be increased in order (i.e., by two cubits), as before, and should end at sixty cubits, and there should be (the corresponding) thirty varieties of the length (calculating) as before.

30-31. (As before) the width of the Dvāraharmya should be increased by two cubits up to seventy cubits, and there should be (the corresponding) thirty-five varieties of length.

32-33. The width of the Mahāgopura should be increased by two cubits to eighty cubits, and there should be (the corresponding) forty varieties of length.

34-35. The increment of the length may, otherwise, be by one cubit (instead of two); the length may be increased up to twice the width, the increment being by one part (of the width).

36. The width (of the five kinds of gatehouses) from the Dvāraśobhā to the Mahāgopura is stated (below) in (terms) of parts.

37. The width of the Dvāraśobha should be divided into two, three, four, five, and six parts (? in the five courts respectively).

38-39. The width of the Dvāraśālā should be similarly divided into five, six, seven, eight, and nine parts.

40-41. The width of the Dvāraprāsāda should be similarly divided into seven, eight, nine, ten, and eleven parts.

42-43. The width of the Dvāraharmya should be discreetly divided into eight, nine, ten, eleven, and twelve parts.

44-45. The width of the Mahāgopura should be similarly divided into nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, and fourteen (equal) parts.

46-47. The height should be one-half or three-fourths of, or equal to the width: such should be the height of the door-pillar from the plinth to the top of the pillar.

48. A half of that (the height of the door-pillar) should be the breadth of the door (dvāra), and the width (of the door-pillar) should be one-eighth of that (i.e., its height).

49-51. One-and one-fourth, one-and-one-half, or one-and-three-fourths of the breadth, or twice that should be the height (of the door), in the human buildings of all kinds (i.e. residential) in particular it should be greater than the breadth by one-fourth up to one-half.

52. In case of the five, six, and seven parts (of the breadth), the height may be twice or two and-a-half times (those parts).

53. The height of all the doors (dvāra) should be (generally) two-and-a-half times or thrice (the breadth).

54. The breadth may be of as many parts (i.e., varieties) as desired, but it must be proportionate to the respective height.

55. The gatehouse should be constructed with the breadth (which should be) one-half of its height.

56. If there should be a high pedestal this measure (of height) may exclude (the height of the former).

67. The (application of the) five kinds of height consisting of the śāntika and others will be described now.

58-61. The height should be greater than the width of the gatehouse by one-fourth, one-half, and three-fourths, twice, and two-and-one-fourth times as much: these are the five heights of the door (dvāra) in all the (five) gatehouses (gopura).[1]

62. The measurement of the door (dvāra) will be stated alternatively in terms of cubits.

63-64. The five varieties of the breadth of the door in the gatehouse called the Dvāraśobhā should begin from one cubit and end at two cubits, the increment being by six aṅgulas (a quarter cubit).

65-68. The five varieties of the breadth of the door in the gatehouse called the Dvāraśālā should begin from two cubits and end at three cubits; the five kinds of the breadth of the door in the Dvāraprāśāda of the middle (third, court) should begin from three cubits and end at four cubits, the increment being by sis aṅgulas (in each case).

69-70. The five varieties of breadth of the door in case of the Dvāraharmya (of the fourth court) should begin from four cubits and end at five cubits, (the increment being by a quarter cubit).

71-72. The five varieties of breadth of the door in the (Mahā) gopura are said to begin from five cubits and end at six cubits, (the increment being by a quarter cubit).

73-76. As an alternative, the breadth of the (door of the five) gatehouses, from the Dvāraśobhā to the (Mahā) gopura, should begin respectively from one, two, three, four, and five cubits, and end at five, six, seven, eight, and nine cubits, the increment being by one cubit; the height of all these kinds of doors should be twice the breadth (in each case).

77. Thus are described the doors of the gatehouses of gods (i.e., in the temples); those (of the gatehouses) in the human buildings should be specially (considered).

78-80. (In such residential buildings) the height of the door should be made twice (the breadth) loss one-eighth, one-seventh one-sixth, one-fifth, or one one-fourth.

81. The door should be constructed extending from above the plinth (janman) to below the crowning fillet (uttara).

82. Thus should be made the height of the door, and the lintel (paṭṭikā) should be included therein,

83. The rest (i.e., the remaining parts of the door) should be discreetly made; all the doors should thus be constructed.

84. I shall now describe the measurement of the gatehouses in comparison with that of the main edifice.

85-87. The breadth of the Dvāraśobhā and the other gatehouses should be equal to the breadth of the main edifice, or be greater by one-fourth, one-half, three-fourths, or be twice.

88. Each of these measures should be of five kinds, and the length should be as before.

89-92. The base of the pillar (of the gatehouses) may be equal to the base of the main building, or the height of the base of the pillar of the main building being divided into four, five, six, seven, and eight parts, the height of the base of the pillar in the Dvāraśobhā and the other gatehouses should be one part loss in each case.

93. The height of the doors (in the gatehouses) is known to be made (i.e. exclude) the (height of the) pedestal.

94-96. In the Dvāraśobhā (type of gatehouses) there should be a single storey, and in the second (i.e. the Dvāraśālā) there should be two storeys; there should be built three storeys to compose the body of the Dvāraprāsada, and four storeys for the Dvāraharmya; and the Mahāgopura should be made five-storeyed[2].

97. In places of great (importance) there may be other (kinds of) gatehouses furnished with up to sixteen (? seventeen) storeys.

98-99. The single-storeyed one (i.e., the Dvāraśobhā) may also be of three kinds (namely), one, three, and five-storeyed, and may even be raised to the thirteenth storey, the extension being by two storeys.

100-101. The three kinds of the two-storeyed one (i.e., the Dvāraśālā) are said to begin from two, three, or four storeys, and end at fourteen storeys, the extension being by two storeys.

102. The three-storeyed one (i.e.. the Dvāraprāsāda) is (also) stated to be of three kinds (namely), from three-storeyed to fifteen-storeyed.

103 -104. The four-storeyed ono (i.e., the Dvāraharmya) is said to be of three types, namely, the smallest, etc., beginning from four, six, and eight storeys, and ending at sixteen, storeys.

105-106. The three types of the five-storeyed one (i.e. the Mahāgopura) should begin from five, seven, or nine storeys, and end at seventeen storeys, the extension being by two (storeys).

107-108. With regard to temples, the height (i.e, the number of storeys of the gatehouses) may be equal to, or greater, or loss than the height of the main buildings: this has been laid down by the ancients with regard to the Dvāraśobhā and all other gatehouses.

109-110. With regard to the human (residential) buildings, the height (i.e., the number of storeys, of the gatehouses) should be equal to or less than the height of the main buildings; if it (the gatehouse) be furnished with more storeys than the main edifice, the king and the kingdom will be destroyed.

111. Thus the wise (architect) should construct the Dvāraśobhā (type of gatehouses).

112. The other gatehouses also should, likewise, be constructed as directed above.

113-115. The wise (architect) should divide the height of the door pillar into four (equal) parts; (of these) the height of the pedestal (upapīṭha) should be one part, and the entablature (masūraka) equal to that (i.e., one part); and the height of the pillar proper should be two parts; it should be made with its characteristic features.

116-118. The height of the door-pillar being divided into seventeen parts, the pedestal should be five parts, and the entablature four parts, (and of the remainder) the height of the pillar should be made twice that of the base.[3]

119-121. The expert (architect) should divide the height of the door-pillar into.twelve parts; (of these) the height of the pedestal should be two parts and the base the same, and twice those (i.e. eight parts) the height of the pillar.

121-123. The height of the door-pillar should be again divided into nineteen parts; (of these) the pedestal should be seven parts, the base four parts, and the height of the pillar eight parts.

124-126. The height of the door-pillar being, likewise, divided into six parts, the height of the pedestal should be directly (from the bottom) one part, the base one part, and the height of the pillar should be made (twice those parts).

127-129. The height of the door-pillar being divided into twenty-one parts, the height of the pedestal should be made of nine parts, the base should be four parts, and the height of the pillar eight parts.

130-132. The height of the door-pillar should be divided into eleven parts; (of these) the height of the pedestal should be five parts, the height (lit. measurement) of the base two parts, and the height of the pillar four parts.

132-135. As another alternative, the height of the door-pillar being divided into twenty-three parts, the pedestal should be eleven parts, and the base four parts, and the height of the pillar eight parts.

135-137. (The same) being again divided into six parts, the pedestal should be three parts, the base one part, and the height cf the pillar two parts.

137-138. The members above that (the pillar) from the entablature (prastara) up to the end of the finial (śikhā) in the (gatehouses of) various storeys will now be described.

139-141. The entablature (mañca) should be equal to the base, and the height of the neck (gala) the same; the height of the spherical roof (śikhara) should be made twice the height of the neck; and the height of the spire (śikha) should be half the spherical roof (śikhara), and the small dome (stūpi) should be one-third of that (spire).

142. The one-storeyed structure is thus described; the gatehouses of two and more storeys should be similarly (built).

143. The gatehouses are specially distinguished (into three typos), as the smallest, the intermediate, and the largest.

144. The relative measurement (of the members), from the entablature (prastara) to the top of the finial (śikhā), will be described (here).

145-147. (The measurement of the entablature, etc.,) is now stated in comparison with the measurement of that (pillar) for which the base is made: the height of the entablature should be equal to the height of the base, or less by one-fifth, one-sixth, one-seventh, or one-eighth.

148. The height; of the pillar in the upper storeys is now considered in comparison with the pillar in the lower storeys.

149-150. (The pillar in the lower storey) being divided into eight, seven, six, or five parts, the height of the pillar in the upper storeys should be less (by one part in each case).

151. The entablatures should, likewise, be measured in each storey.

152. Thug should be carried out the comparative measurement (of the members) in the smallest (type of) gatehouses.

153-154. The height of the base should be (divided into) nine, eleven, and thirteen parts; the height of the entablature should be one-half of these parts (in each case).

155. The height of the pillars in the lower storeys being divided into those parts, the height of tthe pillars in the upper storeys should be less by one part (in each case).

150. The entablatures should be, likewise, measured in each storey.

157-158. The measurement of which (i.e. the capital) is extended to the end of the fillet of the cornice (uttara), above that (i.e., the capital) should be fixed the entablature, and the platform (vedikā) above the latter should be one-half of that (entablature).

159. Twice that (platform) should be the height of the neck (gala), and the head (śiras) should be twice the height of the entablature.

160-161. The height of the spire (śikhā) should be one-half of the spherical roof (śikhara). Those aro the relative measures (of the component members) in the intermediate type of the gatehouses.

162. The relative measurement (of the component members) in the largest type of gatehouses will be now stated according to rules.

163. As before, they are distinguished as one-storeyed, two-storeyed, and so on in particular.

164-166. The height of the door-pillar, the breadth of the door, the height of the pedestal, the base, and the height of the (main) pillar, and the rest should be made as said before; the measurement of the upper (members) will be stated (below).

167-168. The height of the upper pillar should be three-fourths of the whole base (of the gate-house); (in another way) the height of the upper pillar should be three-fourths of the height of the lower pillar.

169. The upper entablature should be three-fourths of the lower entablature (mañca).

170-171 As an alternative, the height of lower pillar being divided into five, six, seven, eight, nine, or ten parts, the height of the upper pillar should be less by one part (in each case).

172. One-half of that (i.e., the entablature) should be the height of the platform (vedikā), and twice that should be the height of the neck (grīva).

173. The height of the spherical roof (śikhara) should be twice the height, of the neck (grīva).

174. One-half of that should be the height of its spire (śikhā), and there should be five spires (śikhā) on the second storey.

175. The entablature is measured as before, and the lower pillar and the other members should also be as before.

176. The height of the platform (vedikā) should be one-half of the height of the entablature.

177. The ornamental mouldings (kānta) above the platform (vedikā) should be made as before.

178. Along the height of the second storey there should be furnished four, two, or (up to) seven port-holes (netra, eyes).

179. Thus is described the three-storeyed gate-houses The four and other storeyed gatehouses are described here.

180-181 One-half of the measure of the base being divided into six parts, the height of the entablature is said to be equal (to that), or lour-fifths part.

182. The height of the upper pillar may, otherwise, be (divided into) twenty-five or twenty-six parts.

183. The upper entablature should be three-fourths of the lower (lit., first) entablature (mañca).

184. The height of the pillar above should be four, four-and-a-half, or five parts.

185. The small entablature (mañcaka) above the upper pillar should be two and three-fourths parts.[4]

185. The upper pillar may be three and a-half or four parts.

187. The entablature (mañcā) should be two and a-half parts, and the platform (vedikā) half a part.

188. Twice that (i.e., one part) should be the height of the neck (gala), and the head (śiras) equal to the neck, (i.e., one part).

189. The height of the small dome (stūpi) should be made of half the height of the head (śiras).

190. The number of spire (śikhā) is said to be nine as in the second storey described bofore.

191. As an alternative, there should be only one quadrangular dome (stūpi, small spire) with four faces (i.e., sides).

192. Thus is described the four-storeyed (gatehouses); the five-storeyed ones will be described now.

193. The height should be divided into as many parts as before and the entablature also should be as before.

194. The height of the pillar above should be five and a-half parts.

195. The height of the second entablature should be two-and-three-fourths parts.

196-197. The pillar above should be five parts, the height of the third entablature two-and a-half parts, and the pillar above that four, parts.

198. The height of the fourth entablature should be two and a quarter parts.

199. Above that the pillar should be four parts, and the (fifth) entablature two parts.

230. The height of the platform (vedikā) should be one part, and the height of the neck (grīva) two parts.

201. The height of the spherical roof (śikhara) should be two parts, and the height of its spire (śikhā) one-half of the spherical roof (i.e., one part).

202. There should be two foreheads, (but) one large nose-like Vestibule (nāsi), and it should be furnished with eleven spires (śikhā).

203. The entablature, etc. of the other storeys also should be as before.

204-205. The pillars, entablatures, platforms, necks, etc., in each storey, should, likewise, be measured.

206. The measurement of the spherical roof (śikhara) and the spire (śikhā), etc., should be discreetly made as before.

207. Or (the measure of the) Dvāraśobhā and other gatehouses may be specially (specified).

208-210. The height from the plinth to the top of the dome should be twice the breadth; it should be of three kinds, namely, twice, and greater or less than twice by one-half; or one and one-half, one and three-fourths, and twice.

211. This should be (the measure) of the smallest type of the gatehouse, that of the intermediate type is described (below).

212-214. The height in the intermediate type is said to be loss than the height in the smallest type by one-fourth, or one-half (of the breadth); and the height in the largest typo of gatehouses should be less than the height in the intermediate type by one-fourth or one-half of its breadth.

215. The members along the entablature, from the beginning to the end, and above that up to the end of the dome, should be (measured) as before.

216. The relative measurement of all these (members) is now described in number of parts.

217-218. It (the height upper portion) being divided into four parts, the height of the neck (gala) should be one part, the height of the spherical roof (śikhara) two parts, and the height of the spire (śikhā) one part.

219. Thus is described (the relative measure of the upper members in) the first storey; the relative measure (of those) of the second storey is stated (below).

220-223. The same (height) being divided into sixteen parts, the upper pillar should be of five parts, the height of the entablature should be two parts, and the height of the platform (vedi) one part; the height of the neck (gala) should be two parts, and the height of the head (mastaka) four parts; half of that (i.e., two parts) should be the height of the dome (stūpi), and the rest should be as before.

224-229. The upper height of the third storey is known to be divided into twenty-five parts (of these); the height of the second pillar should be six parts, and the frieze (prati)[5] two parts and a-half; above that, the height of the third pillar should be five parts and a-half; the next (lit. last) two parts are said to be the height of the platform (vedikā); the height of the neck (grīva) should be one part, and the height of the spherical roof (śikhara) four parts; and the height of the dome (stūpi) rising from the frieze (prati)[5] upwards up to the spire (śikhā) is said to be two parts.

230-236. The (upper) height of the fourth storey should be divided into nineteen parts; of these parts, the height of the second pillar should be four parts and a half; the measurement of the entablature above that should be one part and a half; the height of the pillar (above) should be three parts and a-half, and the corona (kapotaka) one and one-fourth parts; the pillar (above) should be two and three-fourths parts, and the height of the entablature one part; half of that should be the height of the platform (vedikā), and the height of the neck (grīva) one part and a-half; twice that (i.e., three parts) should be the height of the spherical roof (śikhara), and half of the latter (i.e., one and a-half parts) the height of its spire (śikhā).

232-244. The height from above the entablature to the end of the dome (stūpikā) beiug divided into thirty parts, the height of the pillar should be five parts; the height of the entablature should be two parts, and the height of the pillar (above) four parts and a-half; the height of the entablature is said to be one and three-fourths parts; the height of the pillar (above) should be four and one-fourth parts, and the entablature (mañcaka) above one and a-half parts; the height of the pillar (above) should be four parts and a half, and the height of the entablature one and ono-fourth parts; above that the height of the platform (vedi) should be half a part, and the neck (kandhara) one part and a-half; twice that (i.e., three parts) should be the height of the spherical roofs (śikhara), and the height of its spire (śikhā) one-fourth part.

245 Thus is described the five-storeyed gatehouse, the rest being as before.

246-247. Also the relative measurement (of the members) from the plinth (pāduka) to the end of the spire (śikhā) of the Dvāraśobhā and the other gatehouses as stated by the wise teachers is number of parts (will be specified here).

248-252. The height of aforesaid measurement being divided into ten parts, the height of the pedestal (upapīṭha) should be two parts, and the base (kuṭṭima) should be one part out of (those); twice that (i.e., two parts) should be the height of the pillar, and half of the latter (i.e., one pars) the height of the entablature; equal to that (i.e., one part) should be the height of the neck (grīva), and twice the latter (i.e., two parts), the height of the spherical roof (śikhara); one part should be the height of its spire (śikhā), and the measurement of the rest should be as before.

253. Thus is described the single storeyed (gatehouses); the (relative) measure of the (component) partṣ of the two-storeyed (gatehouses) is described (below).

254-260. (Its height) from the plinth (janman) to the top should be divided into nineteen parts; (of these), the height of the pedestal (upapīṭha) should be three parts, and the base (kuṭṭima) two parts; the height of the pillar should be five parts, and the entablature (mañcaka) one and three-fourths parts; the height of the main (mūla) pillar should be likewise two and three-fourths parts; the frieze (prati) and the corona (kapota) should be one part, and half of that the height of the platform (vedi); the height of the neck (grīva) should be one part, and the height of the spherical roof (śikhara) one part; half of that (i.e., half a part) should be the height of the small dome (stūpi), and the rest should be made as stated before.

261-268. As before, the height of the three-storeyed (gatehouses) being divided into twenty-one parts, the height of the pedestal (upapīṭha) should be four parts, and the base (masūraka) one part and a half; the height of the pillar should be three parts, and the corona (kapota) one part and a-half; the height of the pillar (above) should be two parts and a-half, and the height of the entablature one part; the pillar (jaṅghā) should be two and one-fourth parts; and the height of the entablature (mañca) throe-fourths part; above that the height of the platform (vedi) should be half a part, and the upper neck (grīva) one part; the head (mūrdhni, lit., the crown of the head) should be twice the neck, and the height of the spire (śikhā) equal to the neck (i.e., one part); and the rest should be made as before.

268-277. The four-storeyed (gatehouses) is described here: (its height) from the plinth to the dome being divided into thirty-one parts, the height of the pedestal (upapīṭha) should be six parts, and the measurement of the base two parts; twice that (i.e., four parts) should be the height of the pillar, and the small entablature (mañcaka) one and three-fourths parts; the pillar (above) should be three and one-fourth parts, and the height of the entablature (mañca) one part; the length (i.e., the height) of the pillar (above) should be three parts, and the corona (kapotaka) one and one-fourth parts; the height of the pillar above should be made of three parts less one-quarter; the entablature (thereupon) should be one part, and half of that should be the height of the platform (vedikā); twice that (i.e., one part) should be the height of the neck (grīva), and the head (śiras) twice the height of the neck (i.e., two pants); one part should be the

height of the small dome (stūpikā), and the rest should be made as before.

278-288. The height (of the five-storeyed gatehouses) from the plinth to the dome (top) should be divided into forty-eight parts; of these parts, the plinth (upānu) should be half a part, the pedestal (upapīṭha) eight and three-fourths parts, and the height of the base two and a-half parts; twice that (i.e., five parts) should be the height of the pillar, and half of the latter (i.e., two and a-half parts) the height of the entablature; the height of the pillar should be four and a-half parts, and the entablature (mañcaka) two and one-fourth parts; the pillar (above) should be four and one-fourth parts, and the entablature (mañca) two parts; the height of the pillar (above) should be four parts, and the entablature (mañcaka) one and three-fourths parts; the height of the pillar above that should be three and three-fourths parts, the entablature should be one and a-half parts, and the height of the platform (vedi) three-fourths part; twice that (i.e., one and a-half parts) should be the height of the neck (gala), and the height of the spherical roof (śikhara) three parts; and the height of the spire (śikhā) should be one part and a-half; thus is known to be the five-storeyed (gatehouses).

289. The rest of the five classes of gatehouses, namely, the Dvāraśobhā and others, should be measured similarly (lit. as before).

290. The description of the exterior (ghana) and also the interior (aghana) measurement (of the component members of the gatehouses) will be set fourth now[6].

291. The whole length and breadth of the Dvāraśobhā and all other gatehouses should be as before.

292. The measurement which is taken by the exterior and the opposite (i.e., interior), and includes the measurement up to the apex (cūlikā) (is known as the qhana and aghana measures).

293-294. The projection (nirgama) of the length (āya) of the Dvāraśobhā and all other gatehouses should be of five kinds beginning from one cubit and increasing by six aṅgulas.

295-296. As an alternative, when (the projection) is considered from the wall-pillar (bhitti-pāda) it should be measured in rod (daṇḍa) (measurement); it then should begin from one rod (daṇḍa) and end at ten rods (daṇḍa).

297-299. If it (the projection) be measured from the edifice (instead of the wall-pillar) there would be no defect, but if the measurement be made disproportionate (lit. broken) out of ignorance it would cause all defects; and therefore the learned (architect) should (take care to) avoid it (any alteration) in the measurement of the projection,

300-301. Of the five parts of the width, the inner chamber (garbhageha)[7] should be three parts, and the surrounding wall should be one part; thus is described the single-storeyed (gatehouses).[8]

302-306. In the two-storeyed (gatehouses) the width should be divided into seven parts (of which), the central hall (garbhageha) should be four parts, and the thickness of the surrounding wall one and a-half parts; the pinnacle-turret (kūṭaśālā) should be constructed of half a part out of the wall portion (i.e., one and a-half parts); the corridor (lit. interspace, antarāla) should be equal to that (i.e., a-half part), and the inner chambar (madhyakoṣṭha) (within, the central hall) three parts; from that inner chamber, between the two pinnacle turrets (kūṭa), should be constructed the corridor.[9]

307. The corridor should be specially decorated with the cage-like windows (pañjara), etc.

308. Thus is described the two-storeyed (gate houses); this should be built in the Dvāraśālā (type of gate houses).

309-311. Of the nine parts of width of the three-storeyed (gatehouses), the central hall (garbha-geha) should be throe parts, the surrounding wall (on each side) one part, and the balcony (alinda) one part; beyond that (balcony), of the surrounding part should be constructed, as before, the pinnacle-turret (kūṭa-koṣṭha), etc.

312. Such should be the Dvāraprāsāda (type of gatehouses). The Dvāraharmya (type) is described now.

313-316. Of the ten parts of the width, the inner chamber (garbhageha) should be three parts, beyond that should be the surrounding wall and then the surrounding balcony, of one part each; the corner tower (karṇaharmya), etc., should be (made of) one part each, and the pinnacle (kūṭaka) of one part around; the outer hall (mukhaśālā) should (thus) be of five parts; and the remainder (i.e., the part between the inner and other halls) should be the corridor (antarālaka).

317. 'Thus is described the four-storeyed (gatehouses). The five-storeyed (type) is described here.

318-323. Of the eleven parts of the width, the inner chamber (nāligeha) should be three parts; beyond that the thickness of the (surrounding) wall should be two pares increased by one (i.e., three parts), and beyond the latter the balcony (alinda) should be constructed of one part around; the pinnacle turret (kūṭaśālā) should be made of one part, and similarly (i.e., of one part) the surrounding corner tower (karṇaharmya); the breadth of the pinnacle (kūṭa) should be one part; the groat (outer) hall (mahāśālā) should be three parts; the corridors (antarāla) should be made of one part each, out of the smaller (inner) hall (kṣudraśālā).

324-325. In (the gatehouses of) other storeys, (i.e., the six, seven etc.), the width should be increased to twice the number of those parts (i. e., twenty-two), the increment being by one part (in each of the higher number of storeys), and the pinnacle-turrets, the halls (kūṭa-koṣṭha), and all other members should be constructed with some desirable dimensions.

326-327. The (ornamental) members other than tbo pillar connected with the front door (bhadra) as well as the (door) pillars (them-solves) should be constructed in their proper places; there would be no defect if they be made either prominent or high (as one likes).

328-329. The projection (nirgama) of the front door (bhadra) should be one, two, or three rods (daṇḍa); and of the other (members) (the projection) should be discreetly made in their proper places, in proportion to the main edifice.

330. Thus is described the exterior (ghana) measurement; the interior (aghana) measurement will be stated now.

331. The division into parts, of the breadth and the length, should be discreetly made as stated before.

332. The breadth and the length should be made of two and throe parts (respectively).

333. There being three parts (in the length) of the wall (bhitti), the breadth should be one part.

334. And of the remainder should be (made) the central hall (garbha-geha) with an enclosure (veśana) in the centre.

335-336. As an alternative, the export (architect) should divide the length into four parts; the breadth of the wall should be one-half of the (breath of the) main building (harmya), and the remainder should be (the width of) the central hall (garbha-geha).

337. The width of the surrounding balcony (alinda) in front of the door should be one-half of the wall.

338. The breadth of the front door (bhadra) should be three parts, and its projection (nirgama) one part and a-half.

339-340. The central hall (madhya-koṣṭha) should be nine, ten, or eleven parts, and its projection (nirgama) two parts.

341-345. The front door (bhadra) ia the middle of that (length) should be of five, six, seven, or eight parts; the projection (nirgama) thereof should be made of one part; and of six or seven parts should be made the corridor (antarāla) connected with the central hall (madhyaśālā) of the width of two or three parts, and the projection thereof should be made of one part.

346. The interspace (antara) between those two (members), should be beautifully decorated.

347. Likewise should be constructed one corner tower (karṇa-kūṭa), and especially over the corridor (antaḥ, for antara).

348-349. Beyond that corner tower (karṇa-kūṭa) with the (one) part surrounding the wall is stated to be constructed the gutter (lit. reservoir of water) extending over all the storeys from top to bottom.

360. The remaining should be constructed as before, and thus is described the three-storeyed (gatehouses).

351-353. In the width of the central hall (madhya-koṣṭha) there should be one part more than before; the rest should be made as before, but all the members should be symmetrically (lit. discreetly) constructed: thus should be the Dvāraprāsāda (type of gatehouses); it should be made three-storeyed.

354-355. The arrangement of the four-storeyed gatehouses which (has been introduced) by me is (described) now: there should be eleven parts for the breadth, and the length is known to be (ascertained) as before.

356-360. From eight parts to one part should be (the breadth) of the fifth type of (i,e., five-storeyed gatehouses; up to twice that (breadth) by the increment of one (quarter) part[10] are stated to be the length; the wall and the (inner) hall (bhitti-geha) are stated here: the breadth of the wall (kuḍya) should be three, four, five, six, or seven parts, and the remainder should be the central hall (nāla, i.e., garbha-geha): thus is described the fifth type (of gatehouses).

361. There should be (left) one or two parts beyond the wall in each storey.

362. The breadth of the entrance door (bhadra) at the forehead (lalāṭa) should be one part, and its projection (nirgama) half a part.

363. On the ground floor (lit. in the last storey) should be a verandah (alindaka), or only the wall (bhittika) supported on small pillars (aṅghrika).

364. The perforated screens (jālaka) should be discreetly fitted in between (lit. in the interspace of) the pillars, in place of the verandah (alindaka) on the ground floor.

365. The expert (architect) should make the wall (bhitti) solid (ghana) or hollow (aghana).

366. Two doors should be opend at the middle of the length of the wall (i.e., one being in the front and the other at the back).

367-368. In the central hall (geha) as well as aṭ the forehead (lalāṭa) the floor (tala) should be (lit raised, have the shape of) the pedestal; or it may be fittingly made like a rampart (vapra) with a desirable height.

369. The gatehouses (gopura) are known to be furnished with pillars made breadthwise, extending up to the crowning billet (uttara).

370. The wall should be made of one part out of the two, or three parts of that (whole height).

371. If one part is to be left out (beyend the wall) it should be close to the outside.

372-374. The ceiling (tauli) should be extended (i.e., raised in height) from the bottom to the top in a straight line; the expert (architect) may optionally make the ceiling one-fourth in dimension (i.e., of the whole height of the gatehouse) if that fits in; and at its top should be constructed the parapet staffs (jagantika) connected with the roof (pracchādana).

375-377. As an alternative, the breadth and the length (of the gatehouse, may be three and four parts (respectively); the thickness of the wall should be; half a part, and the remainder the measurement (width) of the central hall (geha); equal to that (wall, i.e., half a part) should be the surrounding verandah (alinda), and the rest should be as before.

378-380. As an other alternative, the dimension (of the length) may be one part more; the thickness of the wall should be as before, and the surrounding verandah one part; the middle door (bhadra) should be three parts, and the rest should be made as before.

381-385. (Again), the (whole) breadth being four parts, the length should be five parts, and the thickness of the wall half a part, and the remainder should be the central hall (garbha-geha); there should be a door (dvāra) on all sides, and the middle door (madhyabhadra) should be of three parts, its projection (nirgama) should be made of one part each, and the (other) doors (bhadra) of two parts each of which the projection (nirgama) should be one part, and the rest should be discreetly made as before.

386-389. (Again), the breadth and the length should be made of four and six parts (respectively); (then) the wall (kuḍya) should be one part, and the remainder the central hall (nāli-geha); the surrounding verandah (alindaka) should be one part, and the middle door (madhyabhadra) four parts; half of that (i.e., two parts) should be (the dimension of) the side-door (netrabhadra), and half of the latter (i.e., one part) the projection of the door (bhadra-nirgama).

390-391. The length being eight parts, the door (bhadra) in the middle should be six parts; the rest is said to be as before; the best architect should thus make this (type of gatehouse).

392-393. The breadth and the length being divided into five and six parts (respectively), the side-door (netrabhadra) should be two parts, and the remaining parts should be distributed as before.

394-396. There being five parts in the width and seven in the length, the breadth of the middle door (madhyabhadra) should be five parts, and its projection (nirgama) one part; and (the measures) of other (members) should be made as before.

396-398. (Again), the length being one part more, the breadth of the door (bhadra) should be six parts, and its projection (nirgama) one part, and the rest is directed to be made as before.

398-400. (Again), the length being divided into parts more than (by one-half of that i.e., into twelve parts), the breadth of the door (bhadra) should be five parts, and its projection (nirgama) one part, and the rest should be made as before.

400-401. Again, the length being divided into ton parts, the middle door (madhyabhadra) should be six parts, and the (measure of the) rest should be as before.

402-405. Again, the breadth and the length being divided into six and seven (lit. one more) parts (respectively), the thickness of the wall should be ouo part, and the rest should be the central hall (geha) around (the wall); the surrounding verandah (alinda) should be one part, and the middle door (madhyabhadra) five parts; the side-door (netrabhadra) should be four parts, and the projection (nirgama) of the portico one part.

406. The length being one part more, the middle door (madhyabhadra) should be of six parts.

407. (The length being) one part more than that, the (middle) door (bhadra) is said to be of five parts.

408. Of the ton parts of the length, the breadth of the (middle) door (bhadra) should be sis parts.

409. Of the eleven parts of the length, the breadth of the door (bhadra) should be seven parts.

410. Again, of the twelve parts of the length, the middle door (madhga-bhadra) should be given eight parts.

411. The projection (nirgama) should be one part, and the rest should be made as before (in all the above instances).

412. This should be the Dvāraśobhā (typo of gatehouses) which is known to be single storeyed.

413-414. The breadth being five parts, the length should be one part more (i.e., six parts); the central hall (nāla-geha) should be three by four parts, and the remainder the thickness of the wall.

415. Beyond that (wall) by one part around should be made the width of the pinnacle-turret (kūṭa-koṣṭa).

416. The side tower (karṇa-kūṭa) should be of one part, and the width of the chain (hāra [hārā]) (connecting the attic hall) one part.

417. Thereat (i.e., in its proper place) should be made symmetrically the central attic hall (madhya-koṣṭha) of three parts.

418. The elevation and the arrangement of the two foreheads (lalāṭa) are stated to be identical.

419. There should be two aide towers (karṇa-kūṭa) which are said to be made of two parts (each).

420. The expert (architect) should make two corridors (antarāla) of two parts (each).

421-422. The central hall (madhya-koṣṭha,) should be of four parts, and the projection (nirgama) of two parts, -one-and-a-half parts, or one-and-one-fourth parts.

423. Thus is described the central hall (madhya-koṣṭha), and there should be two portholes (netra, eye) along the length.

424. There should be a fourth central hall (madhya-koṣṭha), and four corner towers (karṇa-kūṭa).

425. The region of the corridor (antarāla) between two chains (hārā) should be decorated with arches (toraṇa), etc.

426. Again, the length being one part more, the thickness of the wall should be as before.

427. The breadth of the middle and the top doors (bhadra) should be three parts (in each case).

428. The projection (nirgama) at the region of the forehead (lalāṭa) should be of one part as before.

429-431. (Again), the length being one part more and the breadth as before, the middle door (madhyabhadra) should be of four parts, and the corridor between the two chains (hārāntara) of two parts; the central hall (madhya-koṣṭha) should be four parts, and the rest should be made as before.

432. The length being nine parts, the central hall (madhya-koṣṭha) should be of five parts.

433-436. As an alternative, the length should be made of four parts; the central hall (madhya-koṣṭha) should be of six parts, and the middle door (madhyabhadra) of two parts; a half of that (i.e., one part) is said to be (the measure of) the projection (nirgama), and the corridor (antarāla) of two parts; (and) the rest is directed to be made as before.

437-438. As an alternative, the breadth being six parts and the length in particular seven parts, the breadth of the surrounding wall should be one part, and the remainder the central hall (nālikā, for nāligṛha).

439. Beyond that one part around should be the measure of the upper portion of the corner tower (karṇa-kūṭa).

440. The central hall (madhya-koṣṭha) should be of two parts, and the corridor (antarālaka) of three parts.

441. Along the (same) length the middle door (madhyabhadra) should be of three parts, and the chain (hārā) of two parts.

442. Again, the length being eight parts, the central hall (madhya-koṣṭha) should be of four parts.

443. Again, the length being nine parts, the length of the central hall (koṣṭha, for madhyakoṣṭha) should be of five parts.

444. Its middle door (bhadra) should be of three parts, and the projection (nirgama) of one part.

445. Again, the length of ten parts should be distributed as before.

446. Again, (the length) being made eleven parts, the central hall (madhya-koṣṭha) should be of five parts.

447. Again, the length being twelve parts, the length of the central hall (śālā, for madhyaśālā) should be of six parts.

448. The door (bhadra) should be made of two parts in the middle, and the projection (nirgama) of one part.

449-450. The width of the ante-chamber (anuśālā) should be extended to the middle of the chain (hārā); at the two sides the chain (hārā) should be furnished with the vestibules (nāsikā), and the cage-like windows (pañjara).

451. The rest should be made as before, and be discreetly constructed in the same (i.e., their proper) places.

452-454. Again, the breadth being seven parts, and the length eight parts, the thickness of the wall should be one part, and the remainder the surrounding corridor (antarāla); and the rest should be made, as stated by the expert (architects), of the (one) part surrounding the outside of that (corrider).

455-457. The length as before should be made nine, ten, eleven, twelve, or thirteen parts, of which the central hall (madhyaśālā) should be made of (sufficient) width.

458-459. Again, of the fourteen parts of the length, the corridor (antarāla) should be of three parts, the central hall (madhyakoṣṭha) of eight parts, and the rest should be made as before.

460-462. Again, the breadth being eight parts, and the length nine parts, the thickness of the wall should be two parts, and the remainder is meant for the central hall (nāli-gṛha); beyond that (central hall) one part around should be the (measurement of) the corner tower (karṇa-kūṭa), etc.

463-465. Again, the length may be made ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, or fifteen parts.

466. (In all these instances) the central hall (madhya-koṣṭha) should be of five parts, and equal to that the corridor (antarālaka).

467. Inside that (corridor) with three parts, especially, should be constructed the antechamber (anuśālā).

468. The projection (nirgama) of the central hall (madhya-koṣṭha) should be one part, or one-and a-half parts.

469-470. Of the sixteen parts of the length, the central hall (madhya-koṣṭha) should be of six parts, and the rest are directed to be made as before.

471-473, As an alternative, the expert (architect) should make the breadth nine parts and the length ten parts; the thickness of the wall should be one part, and beyond that there should be one part around, with which should be especially made the measurement of the pinnacle tower (kūṭaśālā), etc.

474-480. Again, the length being one part more (i.e., eleven), twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, or seventeen parts which should be distributed as beforo (in all these instances), the central hall (madhya-koṣṭha) should be of nine parts; in its middle the middle door (madhyabhadra) should be of five parts in breadth, and the projection (nirgama) one part; the corridor (antarāla) should be of four parts, and in its middle the door (bhadra) of two parts.

481-482. Again, the length should be made eighteen parts; (of these) the contral hall (madhya-koṣṭha) should be of ten parts, and middle door (madhya-bhadra) of six parts.

483. The expert (architect) should make the wall solid (ghana) or hollow (aghana).

484. The upper portion should be specially decorated with the corner tower (karṇa-harmya), etc.

485-486. In its own place in the interior, the water place (lit. reservoir, gutter) should be made of one part; by the outside (of the gutter) should be continued the (upper portion of the) wall.

487. The enclosure (veśana, band) and the projection (nirgama) may, otherwise, be measured in rod (daṇḍa).

488. The wise (architect) should thus construct the second storey in the Dvāraśālā (type) of those (gatehouses).

489. The arrangement and features of the third storey (of the Dvāra-prāsāda (type of gatehouses) will be described now.

490-491. The length is said by the leading architects to begin from seven parts, and be increased by one to fourteen parts.

492. The thickness of the wall around should be two parts, and the remainder for the central hall (geha, for madhyageha).

493. Beyond that (central hall) in the surrounding part a division should be made from the watery to the dry (lit. land) part.

494. Beyond that (gutter) with one part around should be made the corner tower (karṇa-harmya), etc.

495. Beyond that a reservoir of water should be made of one part surrounding the top of that (corner tower).

496. Beyond that (reservoir) should be made the pinnacle tower, (kūṭaśālā), etc., equal in measure to that.

497-498. There are stated to be made eight central halls (madhyaśālā), eight corner towers (karṇa-kūṭa), and sixteen chains (hārā); and the rest should be made as before.

499-500. The breadth should be eight parts, and the length should be increased as before according to the above-mentioned rules (proportion) to sixteen parts.

501-502. And if the breadth begins from nine parts, the length is said to end at eighteen, the arrangement (i.e., increment) being as before.

503. The width should begin from ten parts and end at twenty-two parts.

504. The extension of the length is stated to be from nine or ten parts to twenty-one parts.

505. But the division into nineteen parts is preferred for the fourth storey (in the Dvāraharmya type of gatehouses) which should be furnished with three-fold (upper) ornaments.[11]

506-508. The width of the central hall (madhyakoṣṭha) should be six, seven, eight, nine and a-half, eleven and a-half, twelve, or thirteen parts; the remainder the corridor (antarāla) and the corner tower (karṇa-kūṭa) of two parts.

509. The central hall (madhyaśālā) should specially be five, six or seven parts.

510-511. The door (bhadra) in the middle of the (central) hall (śālā) should be two or three parts; the projection (nirgama) should be one, two, or three parts.

512. As an alternative, there should be, for the chain. (hāra [hārā]), one, two, three, or four parts.

513. In the middle of that (chain) should be the antechambors (anuśālā), and the projection (nirgama) should be one part.

514. With the remainder should be made the vestibule (nāsikā) and the cage-like window (pañjara) of the corridors (antarālā).

515. The corridor (antarāla,) of the ground floor (lit. first or bottom storey) should be furnished (lit. storeyed) with a vaulted coiling (lit. pitcher-shaped, kumbha).

516. It (this type of gatehouses) should be decorated with the corner tower (karṇa-harmya), etc., and may be with or without a door (bhadra).

517. The chain (hārā) and the corner tower (karṇa-kūṭa) should extend to the crowning fillet or the apex (śikhānta).

518-520. An opening hall (bhadraśālā) should be specially made in front of (lit. inside) the hall (śālā) of the middle compartment (madhya-koṣṭha); or there may be made the aide halls (pakṣa-kālā) or a top hall (ūrdhvaśālā); otherwise, there may be built something like a nest, or half-halls (ardhaśālā).

521-522. The height of the halls (śālā) in the middle compartment (madhyakoṣṭha) should extend to the crowning fillet (uttara), the corona (kapota), or the face-moulding (pratika).

523-524. On the forehead part (of the central hall) should be constructed a front room (bhadra-koṣṭha) or a dwelling room (vāsakoṣṭha) of ten parts; and the rest should be constructed according to one’s discretion: thus is described the fourth storey.

52o-5‘26. (In the fifth storey, i.e., in the Mahāgopura type of gatehouses) the length should begin as before from nine parts and end as before at twice that (i.e., eighteen parts).

527-528. The measurement (i.e., thickness) of the wall should be four, fives six, seven, or eight parts, and the remainder the central hall (nālikā, i.e., the nāla or garbha-geha).

529-530. The outer side of the wall should be extended by one part around to eight parts (which should bo) distributed (lit., measured) as before.

531. The arrangement of the corner tower (karṇa-harmya), etc., should end at the four-fold (upper) ornaments.[12]

582. The width of the central hall (madhyakoṣṭha) should be made as before.

583. The remainder should be the corridor (antarāla) (whore on) the wise (architect) should construct the pinnacles (kūṭa).

534. Those of which the measurement is not specified here should be made as in the case of the fourth storey.

535. The ornaments of the projection (nirgama) and of the door (praveśa, entry, entrance) are described now.

536. The breadth of the fascia (prati) should be divided into eight parts.

537. A half of that (fascia) surrounding the outside should be (the measure of) the platform (vedi) (which is made) at the end of (i.e., over) the wall (sālā).

538. The width of the platform (vedi) should be four parts, and the breadth of its neck (grīva) three parts.

539. The width of the head (śiras) should be same as of the platform (i.e., four parts), and the rest should be like those of the main edifice (prāsāda).

540-542. The large vestibules (mahānāsi) should be made on the two foreheads (lalāṭa), and between those two should be made the middle vestibule (madhya-nāsi); the vestibule (nāsikā) of the hall should be shaped like the nose (nāsikā); the small vestibules (kṣudra-nāsi) should be made in the regions of other corridors.

543. The width of the large (lit. eye, netra) vestibule should be (equal to) six parts.

544-545. The width of the middle vestibule (madhya-nāsi) should be two parts out of three, three parts out of five, or three parts out of four (of the large vestibule).

546-547. The width of the small vestibule (kṣudra-nāsi) should be one part out of three, two parts out of four, or two parts out of five (of the middle vestibule).

648. Its height should be equal to the width, or greater or less by one-fourth.

549-551. The height up to the top (mauli) of the large vestibule (mahā-nāsi) should extend up to the forepart of the dome (stūpi); the height up to the top of the middle vestibule (madhya-nāsi) should end likewise by the forepart of the abacus (phalakā); and the height of the small vestibule (kṣudra-nāsi) should be discreetly ascertained by the best architect.

552-553. The group of four small vestibules should be in conformity with the hall (śālā), spire (śikhā), and perfectly circular domes, and be attached to the neck-pinnacle (gala-kūṭa): this is called the śrībhoga.

554. Where there is a group of eight small vestibules, it is called the Jaya.

555. When there is a group of twelve small vestibules, it is similarly called the śrīviśālā.

556. With sixteen small vestibules, it is called hero the Viṣṇu-kānta.

557. When there is a group of twenty small vestibules, it is called the Indrakānta.

558. When there is no small vestibules, it is known as the Brahmakānta.

559. If it is constructed without the neck-pinnacle (galakūṭa), it is distinguished as the Skandhakānta.

560-561. The middle vestibule should be made higher up whereat the vestibule should be furnished with the cage-like windows (pañjara); thus is described the śrīkara.

562-563. Where the vestibules are consolidated with kankar (gravel), and the central hall (śālā-koṣṭha) in particular is made ending at the dome (stūpika), and when it is made with the frout hall (bhadra-śālā), it is called the Saumyakānta.

564. These are the nine kinds (of spherical roofs)[13]: they should be made on the heads of all gatehouses.

665-666. All these (top portions) should be constructed beyond the pillar (pāda) in all the hollow (aghana) type of gatehouses especially over their upper floors (tata).

567. If the reverse of what is not mentioned be accepted, only what should not be accepted would suffer.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

Pauṣṭika, Jayada, Sarvakamika [Sarvakāmika?] or Dhanada, and Adbhuta: these five heights are respectively equal to, 1¼, 1½, 1¾, and twice the breadth (see chapter XXXV. 22-26, and the writer’s Dictionary, pages 82-83).

[2]:

Compare lines 97,106 where the maximum number of storeys is stated to be seventeen; according to a different reading it may be eighteen also.

[3]:

That is, the pillar should be of 5⅓ parts, and the base of 2⅔ parts.

[4]:

Compare line 198.

[5]:

Ordinarily the crescent shaped frieze (Kāmikāgama, LIV.46, see the writer’s Dictionary, page 361); here it may mean the whole entablature as implied by the context.

[6]:

Compare lines 292 to 330, 365, 483, 565-566, 593, and the writer’s Dictionary, pages 2, 3, 190.

[7]:

Compare lines 305, 309, 313 318, etc.

[8]:

The account is rather incomplete here; in the subsequent accounts fuller details are given (see lines 302-308, 309, etc.).

[9]:

The three other sides between the inner chamber and the central hall are designated as inner balcony (compare lines 310, 214, etc.)

[10]:

That is 1¼, 1½, 1¾ and twice as detailed before.

[11]:

Possibly the spherical roof (śikhara), dome (stūpi), and spire (śikhā) compareline 53.

[12]:

Possibly the spherical roof (śikhara), dome (stūpi), spire (śikhā), and finial (śikhānta); compare line 505, and the writer’s dictionary, page 192.

[13]:

There are actually nine varieties, not ten (see lines 554-563).

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