by Prasanna Kumar Acharya | 1933 | 201,051 words
This page describes “the temples of attendant deities (parivara)” which is Chapter 32 of the Manasara (English translation): an encyclopedic work dealing with the science of Indian architecture and sculptures. The Manasara was originaly written in Sanskrit (in roughly 10,000 verses) and dates to the 5th century A.D. or earlier.
3-4. For the purpose of making offerings to the elements (lit demons, Bhūta), the small altars (pīṭha, lit. seat, pedestal, temples) should be constructed around the innermost side of the circular walls, towards the eight quarters, namely, the ease, etc., of the innermost court.
5-7. A group of eight (temples of) attendant deities should be constructed in. those (quarters) of the innermost (first) court; groups of the sixteen should be constructed in each of the second and the third courts, but in the third court, there may be made a group of (temples for) thirty-two attendant deities.
8-9. From (i.e. between) the third to the fifth court, should be constructed by the expert architects the refectory (i.e., temple kitchen where meals are prepared); the attendant deities thereof are described here.
14. The temples of the group of (these eight deities should be situated towards the eastern gate.
15-16. As regards the temples towards the western gate of the edifice Guha (?Kārtikeya) should be installed in the west; Vināyaka (Gaṇeśa) is said otherwise to be installed by the wise (architect) in the south-west.
17. The five deities (Bhāskara and others) should be installed between the north and the north-east.
18. The temple of Subrahmaṇya should be (situated) between the south-east and the south.
19. The (temple of the) goddess Kātyāyanī may, otherwise, be situated in the south, as well as at the gate (in the south).
20. The temple of Vīrabhadra should be constructed between the south and the south-west.
21. The elephant-faced (Gaṇeśa) should be (installed) in the south-west, and the grandfather (Brahmā) in the west.
22. The temple of (Īśvara or Śiva who is) the Lord of one plot should be (situated) between the west and south-west.
23. The temple of the twin gods (Aśvin) should be constructed between the west and the north.
24. The temple of Sarasvatī (the goddess of learning) should be situated in the region of the north-west corner.
25. The temple of Ratī (goddess of love, Manonmanyā, one who maddens the mind) should be situated between the north-west and the north.
27. The temple of Janārdana (Viṣṇu) should be situated between the north and the north-east.
28. In the north-east should be built the temple of Khetrapāla (god of cornfield) or Vaṭuka.
29. The temple of Bhāskara (the sun god) should be situated between the north-east and the Brahmā quarter (centre).
30. As an alternative, the temple of Ṣaṇmukha (the six-faced, i.e., Kārtikeya) should be in the north-west.
31. These are the sixteen attendant (parivāra, family) deities mentioned by the great sages.
32. The details (of the temples) of the group of thirty-two attendant (parivāra) deities will be described now.
39. In the Mṛśa plot should be the pavilion for keeping the clothes (of the deities)? and in the north-west should be the temple of Vināyaka.
40. In the Dauvārika plot (beyond the gate) image of spike should be placed (lit. invoked).
41. The images of the Triad (Brahmā, Viṣṇu, and Śiva) should be installed in the same temple in the Sugrīva plot.
42. In the Puṣpadanta plot should be built the pavilion for making the flower-garlands (for the deity).
43. The temple of Ardhanāriśvara (Śiva-Pārvātī combined in one image with half male and half female) should be built in the west.
44. The pavilion for keeping jewels should be built in the Asura plot.
45. In the remaining plots should be built the pavilion for keeping the ornaments of gods.
46. In the Roga plot should be built a hall for keeping books (i.e., temple library).
47. The expert (architect) should build the temple of Ṣaṇmukha (the six-faced, Kārtikeya) in the north-west.
48. The jewel pavilion may also be built in the Nāga plot,
49. The pavilion for keeping in the ornaments of the gods may also be situated in the plot of Mukhya.
51. In the Soma plot (in the north) should be built the temple of Viṣṇu or of Manoja (god of love).
52. In the Mṛga plot should be built the pavilion for keeping the perfumes and other things for bathing (the gods).
54-55. In the Īśa plot (north-east) should be built one temple of the image of Rudra (Śiva); or (therein) should be the temple for sacrifice (with holy fire) or for offering dishes.
56-67. In the Parjanya plot should be the bathroom filled with water for bathing; or (therein) should be the temple of the Rudra god, or the temple for making holy sacrifice.
58-59. The temple of Bhāskara (the sun god) should be built in the Jayanta plot; and the temple of Pāśupata (Śiva) in the Īśa plot (north-east); or therein the wise (architect) should build the bedroom (of gods, Kāma or Śṛṅgāra temple).
60. The images of the thirty-two attendant deities should thus be installed.
61. In the Soma plot (northern part) of the third (court) should be the room for keeping drinking water.
65. In the Gṛhakṣata plot should be built a hall to keep unhusked rice in, and in the Isa [Īśa?] plot (north-east) a temple for sacrifice.
66-67. The residences of the assistant architects (Sthāpaka) should be situated in the Gandharva, or the Bhṛṅgarāja plot, and two houses for their family should be built in the Pūṣan or Vitatha plot.
68. The (temple) treasury should be built in the Soma, Bhrallāṭa, and the Mukhya plots.
69. The arsenal (for keeping weapons) should be built in the Puṣpadanta and the Mṛga plots.
70. In the Varuṇa or the Asura plot should be built a pavilion for keeping together waste things.
71. In the Nāga or the Mṛga plot should be built a pavilion for keeping the ornaments of the gods.
72. The bed-chambers should be built in the Adita or Udita plot.
73-74. The assembly hall (Asthāna-maṇḍapa, drawing room, or audience chamber) should be built in the four principal directions and the intermediate quarters; (therein) should also be built the washing rooms and the bathrooms.
75. In the Gṛhakṣata plot or the Yama quarter (south) should be the carriage shed (lit. the rooms to keep the conveyances in).
76. At the furthest limit of the extreme compound wall should be built a shod for the gervant-quartors.
77. A Phallus (of Śiva) should be installed in any convenient principal or intermediate quarter, if it be devotionally desired.
78. The houses for the architects (Sthapati) may, otherwise, be built in the south-east or north-west corner.
79. The houses of the templa-drummers (Vādyakara, a class of people living on professional music) should be situated in the Satyaka or Antarikṣa plot.
80. The houses of the temple dancers (nāṭyakāra) should be built in the Pūṣan or the Vitatha plot.
81. The houses of the tomple girls and others should be in the Gṛhakṣata plot or at the end of the Mṛśa plot.
82. The houses of the temple-boys should be in the region between the south-west and the west (Varuṇa plot).
83. Tho house of the ārāmakāras (pleasures givers, gardeners?) should be built in the region between the west and the north-west.
84. The houses of the permanent staff (nityakarmakāra, day-labourers) should be situated in the region between the north-west and the north.
86. The music pavilion should be built in the region between the north-west and the west.
87. Beyond that or in the same region should be constructed the cow-sheds.
88. A well or a tank should be dug in the north-east (Īśa plot).
90. The row of houses for the temple-guards (Vīrabhadra) should be built in the neighbourhood (thereof).
91. Beyond the furthest boundary wall should be situated the houses fit for the residence of (all) castes.
94. Beyond those the wise (architect) should build the houses of all other people.
95. The stables for the elephants and horses, etc., should be situated on the left side of the gate.
97. In the north-west or beyond it should be laid out a flower garden.
98. At the gates of all courts (prākāra) the houses for the bull (bullock-sheds) should be constructed.
99-100. A small altar for offerings to the elements (bali-pīṭhaka) should be constructed on the forepart of the house for the bull; as an alternative, the altar for the offerings may, otherwise, be built outside the gateway (gopura).
101-102. The wise (architect) should construct the altar for offerings (bali-pīṭhaka) in the space of one, two, or three rods (daṇḍa of four cubits) between the main edifice and the gateway (gopura).
103. The width of the altar (pīṭha) should be one, two, three, four, or five cubits.
104-105. The width of the altar (pīṭha) should be one-half, one-third, three-fifths, or two-thirds of the (width of the) main edifice.
106-107. The height of the altar (pīṭa) should be equal to its length, or greater by one-fourth, or one-half; and it (the height of the altar) is stated to be measured from the plinth (upāna) up to the crowning fillet (paṭṭikā).
198. The height of the cyma (padma, lotus) should be made one-half the height of the altar (pīṭha).
109. Its width should be extended up to the corona (vapra) or the crowning fillet (paṭṭika).
110. The width of the cyma (padma, lotus) should be four and a-half parts out of the five parts of the breadth (of the altar).
112. The crowning fillet (paṭṭa) may be round as well, and its height should be equal to its breadth.
113-114. The steps (bhadra) should be connected with the cyma (padma); its height should be made as that of the aforesaid (cyma); it should be round or quadrangular, or like that (step) of the main edifice.
115. The altar (pīṭha) should have the shape of the base, and the base should be symetrical to the edifice.
116-117. In the smallest type both its breadth and height should be twelve aṅgulas.
117. The smallest typo of the altar (pīṭhaka) should be furnished with the elephant’s ear-like (creeper) ornament over the cyma.
118-119. The measurement of the Vṛṣabha (bull of Śiva) temple should be carried out as aforesaid; it should be made like a pavilion (maṇḍapa), or be of such measurement as would make it look beautiful.
The attendant deities of the Viṣṇu temple:
120. The details of the attendant deities of the Viṣṇu temple will be described now.
121. The door-gods should be installed at the main gates of the five enclosure walls (śālā).
124. On the right side should be installed the image of Cakradhara (Viṣṇu, the carrier of the disc), and on the left side that of the Pāñcajanyaka (Viṣṇu, who carries the conch-shell).
125. Gaṇeśa should be installed on the right and Kātyāyanī on the left (side of the gate).
126. Bhāskara (the Sun) should be installed on the right, and Nisāpati (the moon) on the left (side of the gate).
128-129. Those (images) should be installed (respectively) at the five gates of the five courts, from the first to the fifth: thus arc described in order the ten door deities.
131. On the front side towards the north (of Garuḍa) should be the temple of Viṣvaksena (Viṣṇu).
132. Within the innermost court should bo, as before, the altar for offerings (balipīṭha).
133. On the right side of the gate should be constructed the temple of Divaspati (the Sun).
134. In the south-east corner should, likewise, be the sheds for the animals (mṛga).
135. Kātyāyanī is said to be installed in the south, and Vināyaka (Gaṇeśa) in the south-west.
137. Dhanada (giver of wealth, Kubera) should be installed in the north, and the Bhāskara (the Sun) in the north-east.
138. The temple of Brahmā (grand father), instead of Kātyāyani, may be built in the south.
139. And the temple of Sankara (Śiva), instead of Dhanada (Kubera), may be built in the north.
140 The group of eight attendant deities is thus stated; the group of sixteen attendant deities (will now be described).
141. There will be some difference hero with regard to the (quarters for the temples of those) gods mentioned above.
142. The temple of Gaṇeśa should be built in the south-east, and that of Guha (Kārtikeya) in the south-west.
144. The temple of Śaṅkara (Śiva) may be built also between the north and the north-oast.
145. The castle (durga) and temple of Viṣṇu should be built in the region between the two: the north-west and the north.
146. The temple of Cakramūrti (i.e. Cakradhara, Viṣṇu) should be built in the region between the west and the south-west.
147. The temple of Balabhadra should be built in the south, and that of Ananta (Vāsuki) in the Jayanta plot.
149. The remaining deities should be installed as before: thus are described the sixteen attendant deities.
152. The temples of the ten Avatāras (incarnations of Viṣṇu) should be built in a row within the first court.
154. The gods of the temples mentioned above should be selected in accordance with one’s liking.
155. The attendant deities of Viṣṇu should thus be composed, the remaining being selected as aforesaid.
156-157. The Buddha and the Jaina temples should be constructed according to the rules laid down in their own sciences (of architecture, śāstra); and their riding animals, and altars (balipīṭha) also should be constructed as aforesaid.
161. The altars (pīṭha) thereof should be constructed inside or outside (the main temple).
162-165, Within the precincts of the temples of Cāmuṇḍā, Śaṅkara, and Mahāviṣṇu, of Buddha and Jina, and of such other minor deities, and at the gateways (toraṇa) of the colleges (śāstrālaya) the attendant deities mentioned above should be installed.
166. Although an amount of labour may be saved if those (temples of attendant deities) be not built, it would bring prosperity if they are constructed.
167-168. As it is observed now a days, all the groups of the attendant deities should be preferably installed around the main temples and the gateways (gopura) etc., whereat are installed Śaṅkara (Siva) with his riding animal Vṛṣabha (Bull), and Viṣṇu with his riding animal Garuḍa.
Thus in the Mānasāra, the science of architecture, the thirty-second chapter, entitled: “The description of the temples of attendant deities.”
Footnotes and references:
For the identification of those and the following quarters which are more conveniently translated by ‘plot,’ see chap. VII, pages 35-43.
The different quarters of the four directions and of the space inside are illustrated in diagrams given under chap. VII.
According to a different construction it may imply a monkey-house.
For various classification of Phalli see Chap. LII, and the writers Dictionary, pages 528-529).
For details see tḥe writer’s Dictionary, pages 52-53.
According to the Kāmikāgama (LIV-40) this ornament should be made like a “graceful creeper moving on account of being struck by the wind” (see the writer’s Dictionary, page 120).