Mahabharata [sanskrit]

699,462 words | ISBN-10: 812150094X | ISBN-13: 9788121500944

The Sanskrit edition of the Mahabharata, one of the largest epic poems ever written, consisting of 100,000 metrical verses. Consisting of 18 books, the Mahabharata details the history and legends concerning ancient India (Bharata), including a major battle campaign involving the Kauravas and the Pandavas, also known as the Kurukshetra War. This portion also contains the Bhagavad-Gita. Alternative titles: Mahābhārata (महाभारत).

Verse 1.1.20

सूत उवाच ।
आद्यं पुरुषमीशानं पुरुहूतं पुरुष्टुतम् ।
ऋतमेकाक्षरं ब्रह्म व्यक्ताव्यक्तं सनातनम् ॥ २० ॥

sūta uvāca |
ādyaṃ puruṣamīśānaṃ puruhūtaṃ puruṣṭutam |
ṛtamekākṣaraṃ brahma vyaktāvyaktaṃ sanātanam || 20 ||

Note! The following is not a direct translation of the verse, but merely an approximate preview.

...Vishnu, beneficent and the beneficence itself, worthy of all preference, pure and immaculate; who is Hari, the ruler of the faculties, the guide of all things moveable and immoveable; I...

English translation by Kisari Mohan Ganguly (2013) Read online Buy now!

Glossary of Sanskrit terms

Note: This extracts Sanskrit terms and links to English definitions from the glossary, based on an experimental segmentation of verse (1.1.20). Some terms could be superfluous while some might not be mentioned. Click on the word to show English definitions.

Suta, Adya, Purusha, Ishana, Puruhuta, Purushtuta, Ritam, Rita, Ekakshara, Brahma, Brahman, Vyaktavyakta, Sanatana,

Analysis of Sanskrit grammar

Note: this is an experimental feature and only shows the first possible analysis of the Sanskrit text (Mahabharata Verse 1.1.20). If the system was successful in segmenting the sentence, you will see of which words it is made up of, generally consisting of Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Participles and Indeclinables. Click on the link to show all possible derivations of the word.

  • Line 1: “sūta uvāca
  • sūta* -
  • sūta (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
    su -> sūta (participle, masculine)
    [nominative single from √su class 1 verb], [nominative single from √su class 2 verb]
    -> sūta (participle, masculine)
    [nominative single from √ class 6 verb]
    -> sūta (participle, masculine)
    [nominative single from √ class 2 verb]
  • uvāca -
  • vac (verb class 2)
    [perfect active first single], [perfect active third single]
    vac (verb class 3)
    [perfect active first single], [perfect active third single]
  • Line 2: “ādyaṃ puruṣamīśānaṃ puruhūtaṃ puruṣṭutam
  • ādyam -
  • ādya (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    ādya (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    ādyā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
    ad -> ādya (participle, masculine)
    [adverb from √ad]
    ad -> ādya (participle, neuter)
    [adverb from √ad]
    ad -> ādyā (participle, feminine)
    [adverb from √ad]
    ad -> ādya (participle, masculine)
    [accusative single from √ad]
    ad -> ādya (participle, neuter)
    [nominative single from √ad], [accusative single from √ad]
  • puruṣam -
  • puruṣa (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    puruṣa (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    puruṣā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
  • īśānam -
  • īśāna (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    īśāna (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    īśānā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
    īś -> īśāna (participle, masculine)
    [accusative single from √īś class 2 verb]
    īś -> īśāna (participle, neuter)
    [nominative single from √īś class 2 verb], [accusative single from √īś class 2 verb]
  • puruhūtam -
  • puruhūta (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    puruhūta (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    puruhūtā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
  • puruṣṭutam -
  • puruṣṭuta (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    puruṣṭuta (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    puruṣṭutā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
  • Line 3: “ṛtamekākṣaraṃ brahma vyaktāvyaktaṃ sanātanam
  • ṛtam -
  • ṛtam (indeclinable)
    [indeclinable]
    ṛta (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    ṛta (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    ṛtā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
  • ekākṣaram -
  • ekākṣara (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    ekākṣara (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    ekākṣarā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
  • brahma -
  • brahma (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    brahma (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    brahman (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [adverb], [nominative single], [vocative single], [accusative single]
    brahm (verb class 1)
    [imperative active second single]
  • vyaktāvyaktam -
  • vyaktāvyakta (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    vyaktāvyakta (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
  • sanātanam -
  • sanātana (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    sanātana (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]

Other editions:

Also see the following editions of the Sanskrit text or (alternative) English translations of the Mahabharata Verse 1.1.20

Cover of edition (2013)

The complete Mahabharata (12 Volumes)
by Kisari Mohan Ganguly (2013)

4900 pages; [Publisher: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd.] ISBN: ‎ 812150094X or 9788121500944;

Buy now!
Cover of edition (2003)

The Mahabharata in Kannada (Set of 32 Volumes)
by Bharatha Darshana Bangalore (2003)

ಶ್ರೇಮಹಭಾರತ [ಮಹಾಭಾರತ]; 13907 pages;

Buy now!

Preview of verse 1.1.20 in Kannada sript:
ಸೂತ ಉವಾಚ ।
ಆದ್ಯಂ ಪುರುಷಮೀಶಾನಂ ಪುರುಹೂತಂ ಪುರುಷ್ಟುತಮ್ ।
ಋತಮೇಕಾಕ್ಷರಂ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮ ವ್ಯಕ್ತಾವ್ಯಕ್ತಂ ಸನಾತನಮ್ ॥ ೨೦ ॥

Cover of edition (2008)

The Complete Mahabharata (9 volumes)
by M. N. Dutt (2008)

6415 pages; Sanskrit Text with English Translation; [Edited By: Dr. Ishwar Chandra Sharma & Dr. O.N. Bimali] [Publisher: Parimal Publication Pvt. Ltd.]

Buy now!
Cover of edition (2017)

Mahabharata (Hindi Translation, Six Volumes)
by Sahityacharya Pandit Ramnarayandutt Shastri Pandey "Ram" (2017)

7350 pages; [महाभारत] [Publisher: Gita Press, Gorakhpur] 44 Color and Black/white illustrations.

Buy now!
Cover of Bengali edition

The Mahabharata in Bengali (Two Volumes)
by Akshay Library, Kolkata (2019)

3049 pages; [মহাভারত] [মহার্ষী বদভ্যাস (Maharishi Vedvyas)]

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Preview of verse 1.1.20 in Bengali sript:
সূত উবাচ ।
আদ্যং পুরুষমীশানং পুরুহূতং পুরুষ্টুতম্ ।
ঋতমেকাক্ষরং ব্রহ্ম ব্যক্তাব্যক্তং সনাতনম্ ॥ ২০ ॥

Cover of Gujarati edition

Mahabharat in Gujarati (20 Volumes)
by Dinkar Joshi (દિનકર જોશી) (2010)

14252 pages; [મહાભારત] [Publisher: Pravin Prakashan Pvt. Ltd, Rajkot]

Buy now!

Preview of verse 1.1.20 in Gujarati sript:
સૂત ઉવાચ ।
આદ્યં પુરુષમીશાનં પુરુહૂતં પુરુષ્ટુતમ્ ।
ઋતમેકાક્ષરં બ્રહ્મ વ્યક્તાવ્યક્તં સનાતનમ્ ॥ ૨૦ ॥

Cover of edition (2018)

Shri Mahabharatam in Malayalam (2 volumes)
by Swami Mridananda (2018)

1681 pages; [Publisher: Ramakrishna Math, Thrissur]

Buy now!

Preview of verse 1.1.20 in Malayalam sript:
സൂത ഉവാച ।
ആദ്യം പുരുഷമീശാനം പുരുഹൂതം പുരുഷ്ടുതമ് ।
ഋതമേകാക്ഷരം ബ്രഹ്മ വ്യക്താവ്യക്തം സനാതനമ് ॥ ൨൦ ॥

Cover of edition (2018)

Mahabharata in Telugu (7 Volumes)
by Gita Press, Gorakhpur (2018)

7248pages

Buy now!

Preview of verse 1.1.20 in Telugu sript:
సూత ఉవాచ ।
ఆద్యం పురుషమీశానం పురుహూతం పురుష్టుతమ్ ।
ఋతమేకాక్షరం బ్రహ్మ వ్యక్తావ్యక్తం సనాతనమ్ ॥ ౨౦ ॥

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