Hitopadesha [sanskrit]

8,857 words

The Sanskrit edition of the Hitopadesha referencing the English translation and grammatical analysis. Written by Narayana in the 8th century, the Hitopadesha represents a collection of short stories involving human and animal characters, instructing the reader on basic ancient Indian moral values and ethical conduct. Alternative titles: हितोपदेशः, Hitopadeśa, Hitopadesa.

Introduction

siddhiḥ sādhye satām astu prasādāt tasya dhūrjaṭeḥ |
jāhnavī-phena-lekheva yan-mūrdhni śaśinaḥ kalā || 1 ||
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śruto hitopadeśo 'yaṃ pāṭavaṃ saṃskṛtoktiṣu |
vācāṃ sarvatra vaicitryaṃ nīti-vidyāṃ dadāti ca || 2 ||
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ajarāmaravat prājño vidyāmarthaṃ ca cintayet |
gṛhīta iva keśeṣu mṛtyunā dharmamācaret || 3 ||
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sarva-dravyeṣu vidyaiva dravyam āhur anuttamam |
ahāryatvād anarghatvād akṣayatvāc ca sarvadā || 4 ||
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saṃyojayati vidyaiva nīcagāpi naraṃ sarit |
samudram iva durgharṣaṃ nṛpaṃ bhāgyam ataḥ param || 5 ||
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vidyā dadāti vinayaṃ vinayād yāti pātratām |
pātratvāt dhanam āpnoti dhanād dharmaṃ tataḥ sukham || 6 ||
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vidyā śastraṃ ca śāstraṃ ca dve vidye pratipattaye |
ādyā hāsyaya vṛddhatve dvitīyādriyate sadā || 7 ||
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yan nave bhājane lagnaḥ saṃskāro nānyathā bhavet |
kathā-cchalena bālānāṃ nītis tad iha kathyate || 8 ||
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mitra-lābhaḥ suhṛd-bhedo vigrahaḥ sandhir eva ca |
pañca-tantrāt tathānyasmād granthād ākṛṣya likhyate || 9 ||
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aneka-saṃśayocchedi parokṣārthasya darśakam |
sarvasya locanaṃ śāstraṃ yasya nāsty andha eva saḥ || 10 ||
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yauvanaṃ dhana-sampattiḥ prabhutvam avivekitā |
ekaikam apy anarthāya kim u yatra catuṣṭayam || 11 ||
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ko 'rthaḥ putreṇa jātena yo na vidvān na dhārmikaḥ |
kāṇena cakṣuṣā kiṃ vā cakṣuḥ pīḍaiva kevalam || 12 ||
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ajāta-mṛta-mūrkhāṇāṃ varam ādyau na cāntimaḥ |
sakṛd duḥkha-karāv ādyāv antimas tu pade pade || 13 ||
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varaṃ garbha-srāvo varam api ca naivābhigamanaṃ varaṃ jātaḥ preto varam api ca kanyāvajanitā |
varaṃ bandhyā bhāryā varam api ca garbheṣu vasatir na vāvidvān rūpa-draviṇa-guṇa-yukto 'pi tanayaḥ || 14 ||
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sa jāto yena jātena yāti vaṃśaḥ samunnatim |
parivartini saṃsāre mṛtaḥ ko vā na jāyate || 15 ||
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guṇi-gaṇa-gaṇanā'rambhe na patati kaṭhinī sa-sambhramād yasya |
tenāmbā yadi sutinī vada bandhyā kīdṛśī bhavati || 16 ||
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dāne tapasi śaurye ca yasya na prathitaṃ manaḥ |
vidyāyām artha-lābhe ca mātur uccāra eva saḥ || 17 ||
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varam eko guṇī putro na ca mūrkha-śatair api |
ekaś candramas tamo hanti na ca tārā-gaṇair api || 18 ||
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puṇya-tīrthe kṛtaṃ yena tapaḥ kvāpy atiduṣkaram |
tasya putro bhaved vaśyaḥ samṛddho dhārmikaḥ sudhīḥ || 19 ||
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arthāgamo nityam arogitā ca priyā ca bhāryā priya-vādinī ca |
vaśyaś ca putro 'rtha-karī ca vidyā ṣaḍ jīva-lokasya sukhāni rājan || 20 ||
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ko dhanyo bahubhiḥ putraiḥ kuśūlāpūraṇāḍhakaiḥ |
varam ekaḥ kulālambī yatra viśrūyate pitā || 21 ||
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ṛṇa-kartā pitā śatrur mātā ca vyabhicāriṇī |
bhāryā rūpavatī śatruḥ putraḥ śatrur apaṇḍitaḥ || 22 ||
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yasya kasya prasūto 'pi guṇavān pūjyate naraḥ |
dhanur vaṃśa-viśuddho 'pi nirguṇaḥ kiṃ kariṣyati || 23 ||
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hā hā putraka nādhītaṃ gatāsv etāsu rātriṣu |
tena tvaṃ viduṣāṃ madhye paṅke gaur iva sīdasi || 24 ||
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āhāra-nidrā-bhaya-maithunāni sāmānyam etat paśubhir narāṇām |
jñānaṃ narāṇām adhiko viśeṣo jñānena hīnāḥ paśubhiḥ samānāḥ || 25 ||
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dharmārtha-kāma-mokṣāṇāṃ yasyaiko 'pi na vidyate |
ajāgala-stanasyeva tasya janma nirarthakam || 26 ||
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āyuḥ karma ca vittaṃ ca vidyā nidhanam eva ca |
pañcaitāni hi sṛjyante garbhasthasyaiva dehinaḥ || 27 ||
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avaśyaṃ bhāvino bhāvā bhavanti mahatām api |
nagnatvaṃ nīlakaṇṭhasya mahāhi-śayanaṃ hareḥ || 28 ||
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yad abhāvi na tad bhāvi bhāvi cen na tad anyathā |
iti cintā-viṣa-ghno 'yam agadaḥ kiṃ na pīyate || 29 ||
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etat kāryākṣamāṇāṃ keṣāṃcid ālasya-vacanam |
yathā hy ekena cakreṇa na rathasya gatir bhavet |
tathā puruṣakāreṇa vinā daivaṃ na siddhyati || 30 ||
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pūrva-janma-kṛtaṃ karma tad daivam iti kathyate |
tasmāt puruṣakāreṇa yatnaṃ kuryād atandritaḥ || 31 ||
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na daivam api saṃcintya tyajed udyogam ātmanaḥ |
anudyogena tailāni tilebhyo nāptum arhati || 32 ||
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udyoginaṃ puruṣa-siṃham upaiti lakṣmīr daivena deyam iti kāpuruṣā vadanti |
daivaṃ nihatya kuru pauruṣam ātma-śaktyā yatne kṛte yadi na sidhyati ko 'tra doṣaḥ || 33 ||
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yathā mṛt-piṇḍataḥ kartā kurute yad yad icchati |
evam ātma-kṛtaṃ karma mānavaḥ pratipadyate || 34 ||
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kākatālīyavat prāptaṃ dṛṣṭvāpi nidhim agrataḥ |
na svayaṃ daivam ādatte puruṣārtham apekṣate || 35 ||
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udyamena hi sidhyanti kāryāṇi na manorathaiḥ |
nahi suptasya siṃhasya praviśanti mukhe mṛgāḥ || 36 ||
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mātā śatruḥ pitā vairī yena bālo na pāṭhitaḥ |
na śobhate sabhā-madhye haṃsa-madhye bako yathā || 37 ||
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rūpa-yauvana-sampannā viśāla-kula-sambhavāḥ |
vidyā-hīnā na śobhante nirgandhā iva kiṃśukāḥ || 38 ||
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pustakeṣu ca nādhītaṃ nādhītaṃ guru-sannidhau |
na śobhate sambhā-madhye jāra-garbha iva striyāḥ || 39 ||
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kācaḥ kāñcana-saṃsargād dhatte mārakatīr dyutīḥ |
tathā sat-sannidhānena mūrkho yāti pravīṇatām || 40 ||
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hīyate hi matis tāta hīnaiḥ saha samāgamāt |
samaiś ca samatām eti viśiṣṭaiś ca viśiṣṭatām || 41 ||
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nādravye nihitā kācit kriyā phalavatī bhavet |
na vyāpāra-śatenāpi śukavat pāṭhyate bakaḥ || 42 ||
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asmiṃs tu nirguṇaṃ gotre nāpatyam upajāyate |
ākare padya-rāgānāṃ janma kāca-maṇeḥ kutaḥ || 43 ||
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kīṭo 'pi sumanaḥ-saṅgād ārohati satāṃ śiraḥ |
aśmāpi yāti devatvaṃ mahadbhiḥ supratiṣṭhitaḥ || 44 ||
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yathodaya-girer dravyaṃ sannikarṣeṇa dīpyate |
tathā sat-sannidhānena hīna-varṇo 'pi dīpyate || 45 ||
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guṇā guṇajñeṣu guṇā bhavanti te nirguṇaṃ prāpya bhavanti doṣāḥ |
āsvādya-toyāḥ pravahanti nadyaḥ samudram āsādya bhavanty upeyāḥ || 46 ||
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Other print editions:

Also see the following print editions of the Sanskrit text or (alternative) English translations of the Hitopadesha Introduction

Cover of edition (1997)

The Hitopadesa of Sri Narayana Pandita
by Satya Narayana dasa (1997)

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Cover of edition (2015)

The Hitopadesa of Narayana
by M. R. Kale (2015)

Edited with A Sanskrit Commentary "Marma-Prakasika" and Notes in English; 9788120806023; Published by Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

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Cover of Gujarati edition

Hitopadesa (in Gujarati)
by Dr. Narayan M. Kansara (2007)

[હિતોપદેશ]—[ડો. નારાયણ એમ. કંસારા] Sanskrit Text With Gujarati Translation; Published by Saraswati Pustak Bhandar, Ahmedabad

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