Hitopadesha [sanskrit]

8,857 words

The Sanskrit edition of the Hitopadesha referencing the English translation and grammatical analysis. Written by Narayana in the 8th century, the Hitopadesha represents a collection of short stories involving human and animal characters, instructing the reader on basic ancient Indian moral values and ethical conduct. Alternative titles: हितोपदेशः, Hitopadeśa, Hitopadesa.

Verse 4.136

जलान्तश् चन्द्र-चपलं जीवितं खलु देहिनाम् ।
तथा-विधम् इति ज्ञात्वा शश्वत्-कल्याणम् आचरेत् ॥ १३६ ॥

jalāntaś candra-capalaṃ jīvitaṃ khalu dehinām |
tathā-vidham iti jñātvā śaśvat-kalyāṇam ācaret || 136 ||

The English translation of Hitopadesha Verse 4.136 is contained in the book The Hitopadesa of Sri Narayana Pandita by Satya Narayana dasa. This book is not available online so in order to read the full text and translation you should buy the book:

Buy now! English translation by Satya Narayana dasa (1997)

Glossary of Sanskrit terms

Note: This extracts Sanskrit terms and links to English definitions from the glossary, based on an experimental segmentation of verse (4.136). Some terms could be superfluous while some might not be mentioned. Click on the word to show English definitions.

Jala, Tas, Candra, Capalam, Capala, Jivita, Khalu, Dehin, Tatha, Vidh, Vidha, Iti, Shashvat, Kalyana,

Analysis of Sanskrit grammar

Note: this is an experimental feature and only shows the first possible analysis of the Sanskrit text (Hitopadesha Verse 4.136). If the system was successful in segmenting the sentence, you will see of which words it is made up of, generally consisting of Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Participles and Indeclinables. Click on the link to show all possible derivations of the word.

  • Line 1: “jalāntaś candra-capalaṃ jīvitaṃ khalu dehinām
  • jalān -
  • jala (noun, masculine)
    [accusative plural]
  • taś -
  • tas (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    tas (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [nominative single], [vocative single], [accusative single]
    ta (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
  • candra -
  • candra (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    candra (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
  • capalam -
  • capalam (indeclinable)
    [indeclinable]
    capala (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    capala (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    capalā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
  • jīvitam -
  • jīvita (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    jīvita (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    jīvitā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
    jīv -> jīvita (participle, masculine)
    [accusative single from √jīv class 1 verb]
    jīv -> jīvita (participle, neuter)
    [nominative single from √jīv class 1 verb], [accusative single from √jīv class 1 verb]
  • khalu -
  • khalu (indeclinable)
    [indeclinable]
    khalu (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [adverb]
    khalu (noun, feminine)
    [compound], [adverb]
    khalu (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [adverb], [nominative single], [vocative single], [accusative single]
  • dehinām -
  • dehin (noun, masculine)
    [genitive plural]
    dehin (noun, neuter)
    [genitive plural]
  • Line 2: “tathā-vidham iti jñātvā śaśvat-kalyāṇam ācaret
  • tathā* -
  • tathā (noun, feminine)
    [nominative plural], [vocative plural], [accusative plural]
    tatha (noun, masculine)
    [nominative plural], [vocative plural]
  • vidham -
  • vidha (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    vidha (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    vidhā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
    vidh (noun, masculine)
    [accusative single]
  • iti -
  • iti (indeclinable particle)
    [indeclinable particle]
    iti (noun, feminine)
    [compound], [adverb]
  • jñātvā -
  • jñā -> jñātvā (absolutive)
    [absolutive from √jñā]
    jñā -> jñātvā (absolutive)
    [absolutive from √jñā]
  • śaśvat -
  • śaśvat (indeclinable)
    [indeclinable]
    śaśvat (noun, masculine)
    [compound]
    śaśvat (noun, neuter)
    [nominative single], [vocative single], [accusative single]
  • kalyāṇam -
  • kalyāṇa (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    kalyāṇa (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
  • ā -
  • ā (noun, feminine)
    [nominative single]
    (noun, feminine)
    [nominative single]
    (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
    ā (Preverb)
    [Preverb]
  • caret -
  • car (verb class 1)
    [optative active third single]

Other print editions:

Also see the following print editions of the Sanskrit text or (alternative) English translations of the Hitopadesha Verse 4.136

Cover of edition (2015)

The Hitopadesa of Narayana
by M. R. Kale (2015)

Edited with A Sanskrit Commentary "Marma-Prakasika" and Notes in English; 9788120806023; Published by Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

Buy now!
Cover of Gujarati edition

Hitopadesa (in Gujarati)
by Dr. Narayan M. Kansara (2007)

[હિતોપદેશ]—[ડો. નારાયણ એમ. કંસારા] Sanskrit Text With Gujarati Translation; Published by Saraswati Pustak Bhandar, Ahmedabad

Buy now!

Preview of verse 4.136 in Gujarati sript:
જલાન્તશ્ ચન્દ્ર-ચપલં જીવિતં ખલુ દેહિનામ્ ।
તથા-વિધમ્ ઇતિ જ્ઞાત્વા શશ્વત્-કલ્યાણમ્ આચરેત્ ॥ ૧૩૬ ॥

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